torsdag 30. juni 2016

Black Box - What`s inside? - Curt Lewis video

What's Actually Inside An Airplane's Black Box?

Whenever you hear about a tragic plane crash, you always hear about the mythical black box. What exactly does the black box do and what's even inside it? What's Inside took a look by cutting the black box (it's not actually black) in half and ripping it open to see its guts.

The black box can withstand temperatures of 1800 degrees Fahrenheit and tolerate up to 3400 G forces (so it's basically an indestructible beast). The purpose of a black box, or flight data recorder, is to keep a record of the airplane's all-important flight data (flight path, speed, altitude, sensors, etc.), store the audio conversation between the pilots and the radio communication between the plane and air traffic control, and basically keep a log of anything else you need to figure out why a plane went down. With all that data, you can easily recreate what happened during a flight.

And it's all stored on a chip. That's the magic hidden inside a black box. But that's not all there is inside. The black box has an indestructible, thick metal exterior that hides different layers of protection and insulation. There's a hard, clay-like outer layer and a softer green cushion on the inside, designed to protect the precious chip.

Boeing going after the A380 with B777-10X - Curt Lewis

Boeing Mulls Stretching 777 to Knock Out Airbus A380
  • U.S. planemaker has discussed '777-10X' with Emirates, others
  • Proposed wide-body plane would compete with Airbus superjumbo

Boeing Co. is proposing to stretch its largest 777 model to create a twin-engine behemoth aimed at delivering a knock-out blow to Airbus Group SE's struggling A380 superjumbo, said people familiar with its plans.

The U.S. planemaker has approached several carriers about the plane it calls the 777-10X, including Dubai-based Emirates, the world's largest operator of both Boeing's 777 and Airbus's double-decker aircraft, said the people, who asked not to be identified because talks are private.
The proposed model would carry about 450 travelers, sharpening its rivalry with the A380, two of the people said. To do so, Boeing would stretch the frame of its 777-9 to squeeze in about four extra rows of seats. The -9, whose debut is slated for decade's end, will be the first twin-engine model to encroach on jumbo territory by hauling more than 400 passengers.

"We are always evaluating technologies, airplane configurations and market needs," said Doug Alder, a Boeing spokesman. "While no decisions have been made, we will continue to study 777X derivatives and seek customer input to develop products that provide the most value for customers."
An Emirates spokeswoman said that the world's biggest international airline is in "regular contact" with both Boeing and Airbus about current and future fleet requirements.

A380 Uncertainty
While Emirates has reviewed the new 777 variant, it isn't sold on the concept, said a person familiar with the talks. The carrier has ordered 289 jets from Boeing's 777 family, including 150 of the upgraded versions known as the 777X. Boeing unsuccessfully pitched Emirates on its 747-8 jumbo two years ago as a potential A380 replacement.

The U.S. manufacturer is angling to take advantage of uncertainty over the future of the A380, and any strain in Airbus's relationship with Emirates.

While the Gulf carrier, which has taken 80 A380s and last month ordered two more, lifting its backlog to 64, has been pressing the European planemaker to upgrade the model to bolster fuel savings, Airbus has been reluctant to make the multibillion-dollar investment for essentially one customer.

Tim Clark, president of Emirates, told Bloomberg earlier this month that talks with Airbus to enhance the A380 with new engines had lapsed. "My main concern is that they stop producing the plane," he said. The airline's A380s seat between 489 and 615 passengers, according to its website.
For a piece on Emirates pushing for superjumbos, click here.

Boeing is exploring ways to expand its current product line-up into new market niches as it battles Airbus for supremacy in the wide-body market and staves off new competitive threats to its best-selling 737 narrow-body jets. Also on its drawing board: a potential redesign of the smallest 737 Max and a stretch of the largest plane in that family.

Enlarging the 777-9, which is already designed to seat more than 400 people, would give Boeing another way to woo jumbo-jet operators as sales of the four-engine A380 and 747 falter. Boeing's large twin-engine jets have hastened their demise by offering similar range and seating, ample cargo capacity and greater savings on fuel and maintenance.

Boeing's proposed plane could also help the U.S. planemaker counter a new stretched version of the A350 wide-body jetliner that Airbus has been discussing with prospective customers who don't need the engine thrust or the range of the 777-9.

Most Expensive
The -9, the best-selling member of the 777X family, seats between 400 and 425 passengers and has the range to fly 7,600 nautical miles (14,075 kilometers). It is the most expensive Boeing jetliner, and the first to bear a $400 million price tag.

Sales of the 777X have slowed since Boeing unveiled the plane amid a blitz for 235 orders at the Dubai Airshow in November 2013. The upgraded planes will feature Boeing's largest-ever wingspan, complete with tips that fold up while the plane taxis around airports.

Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd. and All Nippon Airways Co. are customers, along with the three-largest Persian Gulf carriers. Boeing's last sale came more than a year ago, when an unidentified customer ordered 10 of the planes.

Pilot vs artificial intelligence - The pilot lost - UAS Vision video

Veteran Pilot Loses Simulated Dogfight to Artificial Intelligence

pilotai.jpg.CROP.promovar-mediumlargeFighter pilots undergo extensive specialized training to be able to outwit opponents in battle, and that professional experience seems like it would be hard, even impossible, to replicate. But a new artificial intelligence system, ALPHA, has been besting expert pilots in combat simulations, even when the A.I. is given a handicap.

Given years of discussion about military drones, it seems like a fighter plane piloted by A.I. wouldn’t be so surprising. But unmanned aerial combat vehicles are usually remote-controlled by a person, at least in part, and are used for things like attacks and reconnaissance, not one-on-one fighting. This has been changing, though.

ALPHA was developed by aerospace engineer Nick Ernest, a recent doctoral graduate of University of Cincinnati whose company Psibernetix works with the Air Force Research Laboratory. ALPHA has been victorious in numerous simulated battles against top fighter pilots, including a series in October against retired United States Air Force Colonel Gene Lee.
It seemed to be aware of my intentions and reacting instantly to my changes in flight and my missile deployment. It knew how to defeat the shot I was taking. It moved instantly between defensive and offensive actions as needed. … Sure, you might have gotten shot down once in a while by an AI program when you, as a pilot, were trying something new, but, until now, an AI opponent simply could not keep up with anything like the real pressure and pace of combat-like scenarios.
ALPHA’s prowess is impressive, but equally amazing is the tiny computer that runs it. For such a complicated set of decision-making algorithms, ALPHA requires very little processing power, running on a $35 Raspberry Pi minicomputer. ALPHA uses what are called “fuzzy logic algorithms” to form a “Genetic Fuzzy Tree” system that breaks big problems down into smaller chunks so the system can evaluate which variables are relevant to a particular decision and which of those are most important. This allows the system to work more efficiently and rapidly.
ALPHA still flys in a simulated world, but as technology continues to evolve behind combat drones and autonomous vehicles it seems more and more likely that it will converge in something like the real-world version of ALPHA. It’s a powerful technology, but it makes you wonder whether we as humans really want to be getting “better” at war. Hopefully these advances will mean fewer human casualties.

Helikopterulykken - Fra Teknisk Ukeblad

CT-scan av sprekkdannelsen inne i planetgiret.
CT-scan av sprekkdannelsen inne i planetgiret. (Foto: SHT)

Super Puma-ulykken ved Turøy

Klare likheter mellom to fatale Super Puma-ulykker

Bruddflatene på planetgirene er like på ulykkene i 2016 og 2009 som kostet til sammen 29 liv.

Tirsdag kveld offentliggjorde Statens havarikommisjon for transport (SHT) den fjerde foreløpige rapporten etter Turøy-ulykken.
Her sier SHT at den mest sannsynlige direkte årsaken til at hovedrotoren løsnet er et utmattingsbrudd i et tannhjul i hovedgirkassa (MGB).

Bruddflatene ser like ut

Mer presist er det snakk om et utmattelsesbrudd på ett av åtte planetgir i andre trinn i den episykliske modulen i MGB.
Som Teknisk Ukeblad har omtalt en rekke ganger, skjedde det samme også i 2009 nordøst for Peterhead i Skottland.
Da styrtet et AS332L2 Super Puma-helikopter da hovedrotoren løsnet etter at MGB havarerte som følge av utmattelsesbrudd på et tilsvarende gir.
Nå går havarikommisjonen enda lenger i å knytte sammen de to ulykkene som til sammen kostet 29 liv.

Bruddet på planetgiret på ulykkeshelikopteret i Skottland.
Bruddet på planetgiret på ulykkeshelikopteret i Skottland. Foto: AAIB
– Når vi studerer bruddflatene på de to i de to ulykkene, ser vi opplagte likheter, opplyser direktør Kåre Halvorsen i SHTs luftfartsavdeling.
Det er også en vesentlig forskjell på de to ulykkene:
– Giret i Skottland produserte spon før det brøt sammen. Det har vi ikke sett her. Denne sprekken har fått utvikle seg stille fram til brudd. Det er i strid med hele filosofien bak girboksdesignen. Testing og sertifisering av MGB har vært basert på at i den grad girkomponentene brytes ned, er dette feil som detekteres. Altså at det leder til metallflaking som fanges opp av magnetplugger, sier Halvorsen.

Design, produksjon eller vedlikehold

Det er ennå ikke fastslått hvordan sprekken oppstod.
Men det er ingenting i denne siste foreløpige rapporten som tilsier at flyforbudet, som gjelder både for H225 og AS332L2 i alle typer operasjoner, skal oppheves.

Slik er hovedgirboksen satt sammen.
Slik er hovedgirboksen satt sammen. Foto: SHT
– Våre vurderinger bak sikkerhetsdirektivet var helt korrekt og står på fjellstø grunn. Vi gjør ingen endringer på dette nå, sier teknisk direktør Tom Gøran Jodal i Luftfartstilsynet til Teknisk Ukeblad.

Slik ser en EC225-hovedgirboks ut når den står på et kontorgulv.
Slik ser en EC225-hovedgirboks ut når den står på et kontorgulv. Foto: Per Erlien Dalløkken
Han sier at de fortsetter å samarbeide med sine britiske kolleger, som har et tilsvarende direktiv på sin side av Nordsjøen, i motsetning til resten av verden som åpner for operasjoner med disse Super Puma-helikoptrene så lenge det ikke er snakk om passasjertransport.
Nå avventer tilsynet tiltak fra europeiske luftfartsmyndigheter, Easa, og fra produsenten Airbus Helicopters. Deretter vil de på selvstendig grunnlag vurdere om dette er tiltak de finner tilfredsstillende.
Hva slags tiltak som kan komme, er også for tidlig å si.
For som Jodal påpeker, har havarikommisjonen kommet fram til at rotoren løsnet som følge av sammenbrudd i den episykliske modulen, men ennå ikke hvorfor planetgiret sviktet.
– Det er for tidlig å konkludere om feilen ligger i selve designen, i produksjonen eller i vedlikeholdet. Men slik rapporten framstår, settes det spørsmålstegn ved selve designfilosofien til Airbus Helicopters ved at det ikke ble detektert sponing fra girene før det fatale skjedde, sier Jodal.

Airbus: Vi prøver å forstå 

260 flytimer før ulykken, ble MGB installert i ulykkeshelikopteret. Girboksen hadde før dette vært inne til ekstra vedlikehold fordi den var med på en trafikkulykke i forbindelse med veitransport i Australia.
Kommunikasjonssjef Guillaume Steuer i Airbus Helicopters understreker at de fortsetter å støtte havarikommisjonen i deres arbeid, og at de er fullt på linje med de funnene som ble presentert i rapporten tirsdag.
– Vi har pågående tester nå for å vurdere hva slags påvirkning en slik veiulykke kan ha på andre trinns planetgir. Vi er også igang med tester for å hjelpe oss å forstå årsaken til fraværet av sponing i forbindelse med nedbrytingen av det samme planetgiret, skriver Steuer.
For operatørene som fortsatt flyr sine Super Puma-helikoptre, har Airbus kommet med en rekke forholdsregler i såkalte EASB-er («Emergency Alert Service Bulletin»).
Blan annet har de kalt tilbake hovedgirkasser som har vært utsatt for noe uvanlig og krevd sjekk av MGBs magnetdetektorer og oljefilter etter siste flygning hver dag. Hensikten med dette tiltaket er å styrke overvåkingen av den episykliske modulen.
– Det kan komme ytterligere forholdsregler etter hvert som undersøkelsen gjør nye framskritt, opplyser Steuer.

Har ulike deler av giret

SHT skriver at det fortsatt gjenstår å granske hva transportulykken med hovedgirboksen har hatt å si.
Etter det Teknisk Ukeblad får opplyst, kan et hardt slag gi et initieringspunkt for utmatting.
Det som kan tale mot denne teorien, er at bruddflaten på giret er så sammenlignbart med giret som brøt sammen i 2009. Det har ikke kommet fram at denne girboksen på noe tidspunkt var utsatt for noe uvanlig.
Selv om ulykken i 2009 var med en AS332L2, er planetgirene like, de kan brukes om hverandre med girene i en H225 (EC225).

Andretrinns planetgir. Giret med brudd ligger på toppen av et gir som ikke var med på ulykken.
Andretrinns planetgir. Giret med brudd ligger på toppen av et gir som ikke var med på ulykken. Foto: SHT
Den norske havarikommisjonen har om lag halvparten av planetgiret som sviktet, mens den britiske havarikommisjonen hadde om lag to tredeler i sin undersøkelse.
De hadde imidlertid ikke delen med initieringspunktet for sprekken som nordmennene har. Med andre ord kan muligens de to undersøkelsene utfylle hverandre.
For øvrig er det britiske QinetiQ som utfører de møysommelige metallurgiske undersøkelsene både nå og etter 2009-ulykken.
I nærmeste framtid skal de åpne bruddet for å kunne bedre tolke og forstå bruddets natur og utvikling.

Hva er gjort siden 2009?

I den foreløpige rapporten avslutter SHT med å fortelle at de kommer til å se på oppfølgingen av sikkerhetstilrådingene som den britiske havarikommisjonen fremmet etter ulykken i 2009 og til slutt i den endelige rapporten publisert i november 2011.
Det er 17 tilrådinger, flere av dem går direkte inn på sertifisering og tiltak knyttet til girboksens komponenter og luftdyktighet, for eksempel tilråding 2009-075:
Den krever at Easa og produsenten (daværende Eurocopter) snarest gjennomgår design, levetid og inspeksjonsrutiner av planetgirene i de episykliske moduelene i hovedgirkassene på AS332L2- og EC225LP-helikoptre, for å minimalisere risikoen for at eventuelle sprekker utvikler seg til brudd.
Easas respons på dette var at det allerede var gjort betydelig arbeid med å revurdere planetgirdesignen og vedlikeholdsrutiner, og at produsenten også hadde foretatt en omfattende gjennomgang av det samme.
– Vi kommer til å gå gjennom tilrådingene og se hva som i ettertid er gjort og ikke gjort. Det er fortsatt en del ting vi ønsker å forstå bedre, sier Halvorsen.

F-35 oppdatering - BBC

Sjekk bildeserie fra avgangen South Carolina

First RAF F-35B stealth fighter jet lands in UK

  • 2 hours ago
  • From the section UK

The F-35B Lightning II stealth fighterImage copyright MOD

An RAF F-35B Lightning II stealth fighter has landed in Britain for the first time after crossing the Atlantic.
The aircraft, piloted by Squadron Leader Hugh Nichols, was accompanied by two other F-35Bs from the United States Marine Corps.
They touched down at RAF Fairford in Gloucestershire just before 20:00 BST, watched by aviation enthusiasts waiting outside the base.
The supersonic jets were supported by refuelling tankers for the crossing.
They will be displayed at the Royal International Air Tattoo and the Farnborough Air Show over the next few weeks.
It was the first time an F-35 had made a transatlantic crossing. (Wrong, the Dutch did it first so honor them properly please. Ed.)

The F-35B Lightning II stealth fighterImage copyright MOD
Image caption The jet was flown by RAF pilot Squadron Leader Hugh Nichols on its first transatlantic crossing
Plans for the F-35 to display in Europe last summer were scrapped due to a technical problem.
The Lightning II, which is capable of short take off and vertical landing, will enter service with the RAF and the Royal Navy in 2018.
The UK will have 24 of the aircraft available on its two new aircraft carriers by 2023.
Its design uses stealth technology techniques to minimise its presence on radar, giving it "very low observable characteristics", according to the RAF.
Defence Secretary Michael Fallon said: "The F-35Bs are the most advanced fast jets in the world.
"Whether operating from land or from one of our two new aircraft carriers, they will ensure we have a formidable fighting force.
"They are part of our plan for a stronger and better defence - more ships, more aircraft, more troops available at readiness, better equipment for special forces, more being spent on cyber - to deal with the increased threats to our country."

onsdag 29. juni 2016

EgyptAir update - BBC

EgyptAir crash: Flight MS804 black box 'confirms smoke'

  • 29 June 2016
  • From the sectionAfrica
A composite picture made of file handout photographs released on 17 June 2016 by Egyptian Civil Aviation Ministry showing one of the two black boxes from the EgyptAir plane that crashed in the Mediterranean after the two devices were retrieved.Image copyrightEPA
Image captionThe two flight recorders were recovered from the Mediterranean
A black box recording from crashed EgyptAir flight MS804 confirms smoke on board, Egyptian investigators say.
The flight from Paris to Cairo plunged into the Mediterranean Sea on 19 May, killing all 66 people on board.
Automated electronic messages sent by the plane had shown that smoke detectors went off in a toilet and in the avionics area below the cockpit, minutes before the plane disappeared.
The recorded data are consistent with those messages, investigators said.
The voice and flight data recorders, known as black boxes, were recovered from a depth of about 3,000m (9,800ft) in the Mediterranean.
The second black box, the cockpit recorder, is still being repaired in Paris.
The Egyptian investigation committee also said that part of the front section of the aircraft's wreckage "showed sign of high temperature damage" and soot.
No distress call was made from the plane prior to the crash. The cause remains unknown.

What we know

Image captionEgyptAir Flight 804 from Paris to Cairo crashed into the Mediterranean on 19 May
  • EgyptAir Flight MS804 vanished over the eastern Mediterranean early on Thursday 19 May with 66 passengers and crew on board
  • Some surface debris was found 290km (180 miles) north of the Egyptian city of Alexandria
  • Wreckage was subsequently found in several locations at a depth of about 3,000m (9,800ft)
  • Signals from the plane indicated that smoke was detected in the toilet and in the avionics area below the cockpit
  • Aircraft made a 90-degree left turn followed by a 360-degree turn to the right before vanishing off radar

Chinese 70- 90 seater joins the chorus - Curt Lewis

China just flew its first passenger jet - and it's a clunker

Tuesday was a big day for Chinese aviation. The first passenger jet built in China, the Comac ARJ-21, made its first commercial flight with launch customer Chengdu Airlines, from Chengdu in central China to Shanghai, a two-hour flight that went reportedly without a hitch, with 70 passengers on the 90-seat twinjet.

The new plane "offers valuable experience for China's aviation industry, especially in the large civil aircraft area," Wu Xingshi, the ARJ-21's former chief designer, told the Xinhua news agency. And that's what the jet will end up being: a way for China to gain experience, on the way to possibly competing one day with Western manufacturers of civilian airplanes. But as a commercial proposition, the ARJ-21 is a failure.

State-owned Comac has corraled around 300 orders for the aircraft, almost all from Chinese companies except for a few in Asia and Africa - Laos, Indonesia, Myanmar and the Republic of Congo - plus an order for five from US-based leasing company GECAS, a division of General Electric, which will then lease them out to airlines.

Almost a decade behind schedule, the ARJ-21 is a sales flop compared to Western jets of similar size. The Brazilian-made Embraer E-Jet family has won around 1,500 orders; Canada's Bombardier CRJ planes got more than 800. Both seat up to 100 people on journeys typically limited to a couple hours' flight, a category commonly known as "regional jets."

The smallest jets from Boeing and Airbus, the US and European giants that have a near-absolute duopoly on planes bigger than 100 seats, sell in the thousands. While not directly comparable to the ARJ, they show that established players in the passenger transport market are on a scale that the Comac is nowhere near matching; in 14 years since the launch of the program, it has built just six ARJ-21s. Boeing builds six 737s in one and a half day on average.

Granted, the ARJ-21 has a list price estimated at around $30 million, way cheaper than similar Western jets. But it's also heavier, which means it burns more fuel. And Comac is an unproven entity; the only thing airlines outside of China really know about it is that it's taken a long time to put its first jet into the hands of its first customer (which also is a subsidiary of Comac itself, by the way, not an independent airline.)

The ARJ-21 took eight years from first flight to entry into service, and only six of them have been produced since 2008. The Boeing 787, for example, needed less than two years, for a far more complex, bigger airplane.

The Chinese market for commercial airplanes is huge and growing, and so far it's been a gold mine for planemakers - Western ones, that is. Boeing estimates that Chinese airlines will need to buy more than 6,000 airplanes between 2014 and 2034, worth almost $1 trillion. Most of them will be built by companies based outside China.

Comac is learning painstakingly to build planes that may one day get a slice of that pie, but right now, its technology is decades behind - and looks like a dicey proposition for export. Its current flagship product is not even allowed to fly in the West. The ARJ-21 does not have a certificate from the US Federal Aviation Administration or from its European equivalent saying that it's fit to carry passengers commercially, and so it can fly only in China and some countries that recognize Chinese certification.

Frequent flyers and aviation geeks who spot an ARJ may not even recognize it for the pioneer it is, or even do a double take: it looks just like a shrunken DC-9, a 50-year old American veteran whose production line closed years ago.

It is, in fact, basically a smaller copy of the last version of the DC-9. Its electronics are made by Western firms; its engines are straight-up American, made by General Electric (something that also helps explain why GE's aircraft-leasing arm has bought a handful. In comparison, it has thousands of Western planes.)

Even if the ARJ-21 eventually turns out to be a relative success, it's a small plane for short flights; no one is seriously challenging the Euro-American lock on big jets that seat hundreds, and on the profits from selling them. (The Russians are trying, but the general consensus is they won't have much better luck abroad than the Chinese.)

China is now betting hard on the C919, another Comac product roughly twice the size of the ARJ-21 in terms of passengers carried, meant to compete directly with the Airbus A320 and Boeing 737, the most widely sold passenger jets in history. But the C919 hasn't even flown yet, and while Comac says it will take a lot less time to bring it to service than its smaller sibling, it hasn't yet won serious orders for it outside China either.

The conclusion is simple: for quite a long time, the only way for people to fly on a Chinese-built airliner will be to go to China and find one of the few routes it will cover.

"China matters more than ever as an aircraft market," wrote Richard Aboulafia, who heads aviation research firm Teal Group. "It matters less than ever as an aircraft producer."

TOPICS: china, aviation, comac arj-21, comac arj-21 first commercial flight, asia & pacific, arj-21 fir

Don Bateman - The inventor of GPWS - Curt Lewis

The undersigned met Don at an FSF conference in Amsterdam, jusr after Honeywell received the  Collier Trophy. Photo: Thorbjørn Amundsen

The Next Chapter For 'Father' Of EGPWS
Last call for Honeywell's colorful chief safety technologist

Being Bateman

Actors and musicians may not like being typecast, but C. Don Bateman doesn't mind it so much.
Despite holding hundreds of international and about 50 U.S. patents on a variety of devices, he'll forever be noted for being the "Father" of just one-the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS), the nearly ubiquitous onboard alerting system famous for its canned "Terrain! Terrain! Pull Up! Pull Up!" shout out.

"EGPWS is probably the highlight [of my career]," admits Bateman, who retired from Honeywell as a chief engineer-technologist and corporate fellow in June after nearly 60 years in the aviation safety business. Much of that time was spent trying to keep "airliners out of the dirt and the water."

By all accounts, he has been very successful. According to the most recent global safety statistics from the International Air Transport Association (IATA), "2015 saw an all-time low" for controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) incidents-one accident-the scenario EGPWS and its predecessor, the ground proximity warning system (GPWS), were designed to counter.

Bateman first developed GPWS in the late 1960s when working for Sundstrand Corp., which later became Honeywell. In the mid-1960s, there were an average of 1.5 CFIT accidents per 1 million departures, resulting in one crash for every 660,000 flights, according to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

In its 2015 safety report, IATA notes that the average CFIT rate over the past 10 years was approximately 0.15 accidents per million flights-the equivalent of one crash for every 6.6 million flights-the vast majority of which involved turboprop aircraft. IATA stresses that CFIT crashes are occurring "mainly in areas of the world where the use of the terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS) is not mandatory." TAWS' reliability is also linked to the freshness of the internal terrain databases (and software when upgrades are available), so IATA is also asking aviation authorities to consider mandating the updates.

The FAA was the first regulator to mandate equipage, in 1974, and ICAO followed up with standards and recommended practices in 1978. The letter "E" preceded GPWS in 1996 when Honeywell added look-ahead capability to increase the time between warning and collision with terrain. Along the way, EGPWS became generically known as TAWS, and several companies began to offer the tools.

Always the gentleman, Bateman spreads the credit for EGPWS around. "Nothing's done by one person anymore," he says. "It takes a lot of support and help from the airframers, airlines and even the press." That support includes his "mavericks," a half-dozen R&D safety engineers and scientists based in Redmond, Washington.

While Honeywell is shuttering its nearby flight-test center at Paine Field and moving three flight-test aircraft (a King Air C90, Sabreliner and Convair 580) and associated employees to Phoenix, Bateman says his mavericks will "continue working as a team" and reporting to the Phoenix headquarters.

Over the years, he and his team have incorporated many safety enhancements into the cockpit using EGPWS as the foundation "because it has so many signals coming to it," says Bateman. Included are the runway awareness and advisory system (to help pilots use the correct runway) and the stable approach monitor (to help pilots decide whether to abort a landing).

After Honeywell, Bateman plans to become a consultant, spend more time with his family, write a memoir and perhaps become an expert witness.

The conversation becomes more interesting when Bateman waxes philosophic, free of corporate strings.

On the state of affairs in aviation safety now: "When you used to get in airplanes as a passenger, you'd say, 'I hope this aircraft gets there safely.' Now we don't even think about it; it's a real struggle to get people to read the safety card."

On airline operating costs: "There's a lot to be done. Fuel is one thing, but we bang up airplanes too much on the ground with other airplanes and vehicles. That's where we need to work. My little team came up with a circle around the airplane. We were thinking of hosting wingtip detection in the EGPWS, driving a display. Another Honeywell team is also looking at putting radar on the airplane and looking at quadrants. I think you'll see [a product]-Honeywell doesn't leave ground barren for very long."

On the flight deck of the future: "My airplane of the future will have picture windows in the front, maybe some flowers up there. One person comes up and monitors the takeoff and the landing using a laptop. She-not a he-will help load the airplane and greet everyone, see them off, load the baggage. We'll automate a lot of that, and pay her $500,000 a year. The biggest problem we've got, according to my wife, is the public accepting it."

On this last point, Honeywell is quick to point out that Bateman is speaking for Bateman, since as a matter of practicality there will be pilots in the front end of aircraft for years to come, and Honeywell will continue supporting and researching everything and anything to do with those pilots and their interactions with the machine.

But Bateman is known for speaking his mind, politics be damned: "That's what I think, and since I'm retiring, I'm open-minded about it."

Flightglobal looks at Norway and MPA replacement - flightglobal

Norway reveals P-3 replacement plan

Norway has revealed a proposed defence spending plan that allows for the acquisition of a new maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) to replace its six-strong fleet of Lockheed P-3 Orions.
Presented to parliament on 17 June, the white paper recommends a gradual rise in the nation’s defence budget over the 2017-2020 period to result in a NKr7.2 billion ($870 million) increase over 2016 levels.
A “substantial increase” of NKr165 billion is planned over the next 20 years to support a number of acquisitions, and is designed to counter previous under-investment and Russia’s rising threat.
“Years of underfunding, combined with a high operational tempo have also created shortfalls in training, maintenance and upgrades that are no longer acceptable in the face of emerging challenges,” the paper says. These must be addressed in order to improve short-term capabilities, and to prepare Norway for any future investments and challenges, it says.
“Norway will seek to replace its maritime patrol aircraft after the ageing P-3C Orion is withdrawn from service,” the ministry of defence says. “A credible defence posture relies heavily on situational awareness, intelligence and an ability to conduct crisis management.
“Maritime patrol aircraft are essential in this context, and the government will introduce a plan for the replacement of the P-3 Orion to the Norwegian parliament in due course.”
Potential candidates include the Boeing P-8 Poseidon, Saab Swordfish system on a Bombardier Q400 or Global 6000 or Saab 2000, or modified transport aircraft including the Lockheed Martin C-130J Sea Hercules and Airbus Defence & Space C295.
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Lockheed Martin
In addition, Oslo has reiterated its commitment to a 52-unit acquisition of the Lockheed F-35.
“One such capability [being acquired] is the F-35 Lightning II with a weapons suite that includes the Norwegian-developed Joint Strike Missile,” the paper says. “The acquisition of up to 52 aircraft with all the necessary equipment and infrastructure will be an essential contribution to Norwegian and allied security.”
In order to make savings, a number of military facilities will be closed, including Andøya air station, home to the Royal Norwegian Air Force’s 333 Sqn, which operates the P-3s.
The new MPA will therefore be co-located with the F-35s at Evenes air station, the paper says.
“While every new generation of equipment and technology allows us to do much more than the previous one, that added capability comes at a price,” Ine Eriksen Søreide, Norwegian defence minister adds. “We can no longer accommodate that trend simply by buying fewer platforms or by internal efficiency savings.
“We cannot have security without sustainability. This plan aims to provide both.”
Following this initial phase, an additional funding increase is planned for 2021-2026, the defence ministry says, which will ensure the implementation of new investment programmes.

Helicopter accident in Norway on April 29th - Updated report of June 28th

Check the report here: file:///C:/Users/Pers/Downloads/Preliminary_report_2016_06_28.pdf
Similarities with the L2 accident in 2009 are apparent. 


This report is a preliminary and incomplete representation of AIBN's investigations in connection with the relevant aircraft accident. The report may contain faults and inaccuracies. The final report will be the Accident Investigation Board's official document concerning the accident investigation. Aircraft:   - Type and reg.: Airbus Helicopters H225, LN-OJF Serial No.: 2721 No. and Type of Engines: 2 x Turbomeca Makila 2A1  Year of Manufacture: 2009 Date and time (local): Friday 29 April 2016 at 11:55 hours Location: Turøy, Hordaland county, Norway (Pos. 60,45234°N 004,93028°E) Radial/Distance from ENBR: 330°/13 NM

Type of Operation:
Commercial Air Transport (CAT), Non-scheduled operations Weather conditions: METAR ENBR 290950Z 20017KT 9999 SCT018 SCT023 07/03 Q1005 NOSIG RMK WIND 1200FT 19020KT= Light conditions: Daylight Operator: CHC Helikopter Service AS Persons on board: Crew - 2 (Fatal) Passengers - 11 (Fatal) Nature of damage: Helicopter destroyed Information Source: AIBN Field Investigation and metallurgic examinations All times given in this report are local time (UTC + 2 hours) unless otherwise stated.

This fourth preliminary report is published to disseminate findings from the ongoing investigation. Previous reports have been issued 13 May, 27 May and 1 June 2016.
Since the previous report further examinations into the three different failure modes – suspension bar (lift strut) attachment, main gearbox and conical housing have been performed.
At this stage of the investigation, the AIBN finds that the accident most likely was the result of a fatigue fracture in one of the second stage planet gears. What initiated the fatigue fracture has not yet been determined.

The Accident Investigation Board Norway Page 2

Main gearbox history
The main gearbox (MGB) was received from Airbus Helicopters after modification, inspection and repair before it was installed in LN-OJF 15 January 2016. At the time of installation, the MGB had accumulated 1 080 hrs since new. At the time of the accident, it had accumulated approximately 1 340 hrs since new.

Main gearbox examinations
The AIBN started the metallurgical examinations on parts from the epicyclic module 6 May (ref. Figure 1 and 2). More detailed metallurgical examinations have been ongoing under AIBN supervision at QinetiQ, Farnborough, UK since 19 May. Airbus Helicopters have participated in these examinations, as well as performing separate examinations in Marignane, France.      
Figure 1: Main power transmission layout with main module (bottom) and epicyclic module with ring gear and two stages of planet gears (top). Conical housing shown in figure to the right. Source: Airbus Helicopters

The Accident Investigation Board Norway Page 3

Figure 2: Planet gear parts from second stage epicyclic reduction gear module. (The fractured gear is on top of a sample gear that was not involved in the accident.) Photo: AIBN
The planet gears are designed such that they act as a gear on the outside while functioning as the outer race of a roller bearing on the inside. In order to improve wear resistance the gears have been given a hard surface through a carburization process. This process also imposes a compressive stress to suppress surface fatigue cracks.

Figure 3: Eight second stage planet gears as fitted on the carrier inside the ring gear, seen from below (first stage gears and carrier is not shown). Photo: AIBN

The Accident Investigation Board Norway Page 4

Two pieces of the recovered parts have been of particular interest. Together they make up approximately half of a second stage planet gear P/N 332A32.3335.07, S/N 10-1292 (ref. Figure 4). Examinations of these parts show that one of the fracture surfaces can be described as being close to 100% fatigue (ref. Figure 5).

Figure 4: The two pieces of the second stage planet gear prepared for metallurgical examinations. The fracture surface with fatigue is to the right in the figure. Photo: QinetiQ

Figure 5: Close-up of the fracture surface initiated on the inner surface (outer race). Multiple cracks propagating from major crack around convex fracture surface. Photo: QinetiQ

The fatigue appears to have its origin in the outer race of the bearing (inside of the gear), propagating towards the web of the gear teeth. In order to examine the fatigued part before performing any destructive testing, the piece was inspected using x-ray computed tomography (CT)

The Accident Investigation Board Norway Page 5

scans. The scans showed several cracks below the surface of the outer race. One crack runs below the surface between areas of surface damage (spalling) (ref. Figure 6).
Figure 6: An example from the CT scan showing a subsurface crack propagating from the right hand spalling all the way to the left. The red colour is a frame-by-frame mapping performed by hand to highlight the crack. Photo: University of Southampton
Growth of a fatigue crack requires repeated load cycles, for example through rotation of a gear or a main rotor start/stop cycle. More work is required both to understand the propagation rate and the origin of the observed fatigue cracks, but at present, the AIBN finds it most likely that the fatigue fracture of this planet gear subsequently resulted in loss of the main rotor. It is considered unlikely that this fatigue crack propagated as a consequence of a structural break-up of another component.
An essential design philosophy regarding a possible failure inside the epicyclic module has been that propagation of a crack would be suppressed by the compressive surface stress. Thus a crack in the surface area should grow outboard and create spalling that would produce magnetic debris, which will be detected on the magnetic plugs (chip detectors). The optional HUMS1 is an additional means for detecting developing degradation.

This issue was discussed in connection with the accident to an AS332 L2 Super Puma (G-REDL) in Scotland in 2009, and measures were taken to improve the detection of spalling. No findings indicate any malfunctions to the magnetic debris detection system on LN-OJF, or fail to follow procedures for visual inspection and checks before flight. Neither are there any records of magnetic debris findings from inspections made since the gearbox was installed on LN-OJF in January 2016.
The observed failure mode in this investigation seems to differ from what was expected or foreseen during certification. AIBN believes that a sub-surface crack has propagated without creating a significant amount of magnetic debris from spalling. Also, the HUMS appears unable to identify symptoms of such degradation in the epicyclic module.

It appears that the fracture of the failed second stage planet gear on LN-OJF has propagated in a manner which is unlikely to become detected by existing mandatory or supplementary systems for warning of an imminent failure.
Even though some differences are observed when comparing the LN-OJF accident with the G-REDL accident, the fatigue fractured planet gears, however, show clear similarities.  
                                                 1 HUMS, Health and Usage Monitoring System, is mandatory for offshore operations in the North Sea

The Accident Investigation Board Norway Page 6

Other examinations Scenarios under consideration as part of this investigation have included failure of a suspension bar attachment or failure of the MGB conical housing as the initiating event. The investigation activities since the previous report do not suggest that either of these scenarios were the initiating event.
Further investigations An important issue will be to seek to determine the origin of the fatigue fracture and the mechanisms behind its growth.

The AIBN is aware that the gearbox was involved in a road accident during transport in 2015. The gearbox was inspected, repaired and released for flight by the manufacturer before it was installed in LN-OJF in January 2016. Whether there is a link between this event and the initiation and growth of a fatigue fracture, is being investigated.

AIBN will also look into the follow-up of safety recommendations issued after the Super Puma accident in Scotland in 2009 (

Extensive sea and land searches have been ongoing since the accident, and findings essential for the investigation have been made. There are still some important components that are missing, but parts key to the investigation have been recovered. Further sea search will be considered.
The investigation is ongoing. Further updates are expected to be less frequent from this point, and will only follow if there are significant new findings.  
The Accident Investigation Board Norway
Lillestrøm, 28 June 2016

Drones swarming offshore - UAV Vision

US Navy to Demo Swarming Drones at Sea

The  US Navy will launch its first at-sea “air show” of dozens of drones swarming in formation late next month, according to officials with the Office of Naval Research.
The demo will feature more than 30 Raytheon-built Coyote unmanned aircraft systems launched in rapid succession and flying in formations, thanks to ONR’s Low-Cost UAV Swarming Technology (LOCUST).
At $15,000 per unit, the drones are cheap enough to be expendable if needed and, launched at high numbers, they can overwhelm enemy forces while requiring little human supervision.
ONR wrapped up a series of land tests this week with an experiment at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, where 31 of the 12-14 pound Coyotes were tube-launched in approximately 40 seconds and proceeded to conduct a series of swarm formations and maneuvers, Vice Adm. Rick Breckenridge, deputy commander of U.S. Fleet Forces Command, told an audience at the Pentagon on Friday.
“It’s going to change some of the calculus of how we operate,” Breckenridge said of the technology.
Lee Mastroianni, ONR’s program manager for LOCUST, told that the at-sea demonstration would take place off the East Coast, with the swarm of UAVs launched from the Sea Fighter, a small-waterplane-area twin-hull platform used by ONR for experimentation and research.
“We’ll launch large numbers of them, doing swarm operations, flying around, doing a number of different flight profiles, then doing a land recovery,” Mastroianni said. “We’re flying them in different flight configurations where they’re in very tight, and then they’re going to change the relationship they all are to one another.”
The swarming technology allows the drones to relate to each other spatially and fly their swarm formations with minimal human direction or intervention, which Mastroianni noted is key for practical and efficient unmanned technology that decreases the warfighter’s burden.
“We have an operator that’s monitoring it, keeping eyes on what’s going on, and can reach in and change things if they want to,” he said. “But the reality is, [the drones are] flying themselves, they’re performing their mission and the operator’s supervisory. So it tremendously reduces the workload to be able to control large numbers of UAVs.”
The swarm can expend enemy resources by drawing fire or safely conduct tasks such as intelligence-gathering or jamming communications that might otherwise be accomplished with manned aircraft.
Mastroianni said he plans to recover all the Coyote UASs used in next month’s demonstration so he can refurbish and re-use the drones for future tests and to avoid having to send divers into the Atlantic Ocean to recover them.
But officials have said they hope to drive the unit costs even lower — to $10,000 or below — to make them even easier to expend if needed.
Following the demo, Mastroianni said he expects ONR to announce its outcome and to incorporate findings and lessons learned in future testing. He said officials plan to continue development on the capability of the swarming drones to conduct maneuvers across the battlespace.
“As we come to a close on this chapter, we’ll be exploring all those different things,” he said. “I expect to be busy for quite a few years.”

SAS roter det til innenriks - DN

Knut Morten Johansen infosjef i SAS står selv i kø for å komme med et fly fra Oslo til Stockholm. Her fra et flybesøk i en hangar på Gardermoen. Foto: Skjalg Bøhmer Vold
Knut Morten Johansen infosjef i SAS står selv i kø for å komme med et fly fra Oslo til Stockholm. Her fra et flybesøk i en hangar på Gardermoen. Foto: Skjalg Bøhmer Vold les mer


Flykaos for SAS

SAS og Norwegian har kuttet sommertilbudet dramatisk innenriks. Flykaos mellom Trondheim og Oslo.
Skal du fly mellom Trondheim og Oslo med SAS og ennå ikke kjøpt billett, bør du ha god tid. SAS har dratt ned antallet avganger mellom de to byene fra 19 til åtte. Neste ledige billett er først om noen dager, passasjerene står i kø og de få flyene som går er smekkfulle.
- Dette er første uke vi har midtsommerproduksjon. Men fortsatt er det mye forretningstrafikk, sier kommunikasjonssjef Knut Morten Johansen i SAS.
Han innrømmer SAS har bommet på planleggingen.
- Vi hadde en klar indikasjon på det samme ifjor, og det er helt klart at dette må vurderes helt annerledes neste år, sier Johansen.

Ikke godt nok

Også Norwegian har tatt ned kapasiteten, noe som fører til at enda færre billetter er tilgjengelig mellom de store norske byene.
- Er dette god nok tilbud til SAS-kundene?
- Nei. Dette er ikke godt nok. Etterspørselen er på et helt annet nivå enn kapasiteten. Det er beklagelig, sier Knut Morten Johansen.
Årsaken til kutt i rutetilbudet er at selskapene har flyttet produksjonen til charter og ferietrafikk sørover i Europa, samtidig som piloter og kabinpersonell også ferierer. I tillegg har SAS satt mange fly på bakken for sommeren.
Også Norwegian beklager kapasitetsproblemer.
- Ved overgang fra sommer- til vinterprogram eller vice versa er det helt vanlig at kapasiteten tilpasses etterspørselen. Noen ruter vil oppleve å få flere avganger, mens andre vil ha færre, sier presseansvarlig Daniel Kirchhoff i Norwegian.
- Vi har behov for ekstra kapasitet på noen ruter, som skyldes at vi ikke har nok piloter i en periode utover sommeren. Derfor har vi leid inn fly fra andre operatører som kan få våre passasjerer avsted. Passasjerene som blir berørt vil få beskjed av oss. Flyene kommer fra andre europeiske selksaper, men vi forstår hvis folk er skuffet over at ikke kommer til å fly med våre fly. Derfor har vi også tilbudt at man kan få pengene tilbake hvis man likevel ikke ønsker å reise. Vi beklager situasjonen overfor de berørte passasjerene.

- Det er fullt

Knut Morten Johansen sto selv i kø tirsdag for å få plass på flyet fra Oslo til Stockholm.
- Dette går neppe bra. Det er fullt, selv om vi ikke har dratt ned kapasiteten så mye her, sier Johansen.
I tillegg til kapasitetskutt, har SAS også solgt flere gruppebilletter på flyseter som ikke eksisterer, noe som har ført til en dramatisk overbooking på enkelte avganger. SAS hevder dette skyldes en teknisk feil fra bookingprogrammet Amadus.
- Dette har gitt oss utfordringer, sier Johansen.
Mandag kveld satte SAS opp en buss fra Trondheim til Oslo for å frakte et fotballag som til tross for å ha billetter ikke fikk plass på flyet.

CS tar av - Air Canada - Avionics

Air Canada Confirms $3.8 Billion C Series Order

Woodrow Bellamy III
[Avionics Magazine 06-28-2016] Bombardier and Air Canada have reached a firm purchase agreement for a $3.8 billion order for 45 CS300 aircraft. The agreement includes options for an additional 30 CS300 aircraft. Deliveries are scheduled to begin in late 2019 and extend to 2022.
Air Canada C Series aircraft. Photo: Bombardier.
“Finalizing the CS300 order is a key element to Air Canada’s strategy to build one of the world’s youngest and most fuel efficient fleets,” said Calin Rovinescu, president and CEO of Air Canada. “This order also will help establish a Center of Excellence for C Series maintenance work in Québec. Following a rigorous evaluation of its capabilities, we’re confident that the C Series aircraft’s superior range, economics, and seating capacity will provide a stellar passenger experience and contribute significantly to our development plans to expand our network and increase point-to-point service to Canadian and trans-border markets.”