fredag 31. mars 2017

GA - Garmin G1000 NXi - Excellent weekend reading this - ATW


Pilot Report: Garmin G1000 NXi

Next-generation system leaps ahead of the original
This article appears in the March 2017 issue of Business & Commercial Aviation with the title “Garmin G1000XNi.”
The Garmin G1000 made its debut in turbine aircraft at the 2002 NBAA Convention when Russ Meyer Jr., then chairman and CEO of Cessna Aircraft, announced that the system had been chosen for the Citation Mustang, the Wichita firm’s new entry-level light jet. The G1000 was smaller in size, lighter in weight and more powerful than any previous avionics suite in its price range.
When potential customers peered inside the Mustang’s cockpit, they discovered that Garmin had moved upmarket with features and functionality that proved it was ready to compete in the turbine market.

But the original G1000 was developed in the era of the Blackberry, plasma TVs and iMac G4 desktop computers. Now, consumer electronics seemingly are light years more advanced. And so are integrated avionics systems.
In January 2017, Garmin announced the G1000 NXi, a second-generation system that takes full advantage of 15 years of technology advances. The successor system has dual core processors, 250 times more nonvolatile memory and a whole raft of other computer power upgrades that slash boot-up time by one-half, provide considerably better graphics refresh rates and take the lag out of image zooming and panning. In short, the G1000 NXi has been upgraded with many of the bits and pieces used in Garmin’s more expensive integrated avionics systems, such as the G2000, G3000 and G5000. The displays, for example, have adaptive LED back lighting that produces truer colors and crisper graphics.
The next-gen G1000 has been upgraded with dual integrated GSU 75B integrated air data/AHRS boxes that save weight and space compared to the first generation’s separate GDC 74B digital air data computers and GRS 77 AHRS units. Both the GSU 75B and GRS 77 use GPS, magnetic heading and air data for attitude and heading computations. Notably, they have relatively high drift rates when such inputs are lost. And some Garmin integrated avionics systems using the GRS 77 AHRS reportedly have experienced attitude indicator and yaw damper degradation with loss of the GPS signal.
For operators needing higher performance AHRS, Garmin offers optional GRS 7800 units that have substantially lower drift rates and considerably less-restrictive geographic operating limits. The GRS 7800, for instance, is designed for full functionality up to 80 deg. north or south latitudes. And it can provide reliable attitude information for a considerably longer period of time after GPS signal loss than the aforementioned AHRS or AD/AHRS. GRS 7800 boxes are paired with optional GDC 7400 digital air data units to provide AHRS and air data information for the G1000 NXi.

The G1000 NXi has an impressive feature set. Optional or standard are SurfaceWatch, which warns flight crews if they’re attempting a takeoff from a runway that’s too short or a taxiway; Flight Stream Wi-Fi/Bluetooth connectivity that allows transfer of flight plans and avionics databases from iPads and other PDAs; visual approach guidance; and several HSI map modes. Sirius/XM satellite radio weather is standard and the optional Garmin GSR56 Iridium satcom radio adds connectivity for worldwide weather, voice calling and text messaging. Both satcom services require subscriptions.
When buyers opt for extra-cost electronic stability protection software, they also get an autopilot-coupled go-around capability that only requires the crew to press the go-around button and then make thrust or power adjustments and change aircraft configuration to execute the missed approach procedure (MAP). The autopilot handles all the flying chores, just as with the latest integration avionics systems furnished by Honeywell and Rockwell Collins in high-end turbine business aircraft.
The G1000 NXi provides two routes to the Jan. 1, 2020, ADS-B Out mandate. Its twin WAAS GPS receivers and standard operating system generate the extended squitter message set required for ADS-B Out. The standard twin GTX 335R remote Mode S ES transponders transmit the ADS-B set and they’re compatible with the Garmin GTS 820/825 traffic awareness systems or the Garmin GTS 850/855 TCAS I/ACAS I. For aircraft upgraded with Garmin’s optional GTS 8000 TCAS II system, Garmin offers the GTX 3000, a hybrid ADS-B/TCAS II/ACAS II Mode S ES transponder.

ADS-B In can be provided by upgrading from the GTX 335R to GTX 345R that has both Mode S and UAT ADS-B In channels. For aircraft fitted with GTX 3000 transponders, ADS-B In requires installation of the Mode S ES/UAT GDL 88 dual data-link transceiver.
The G1000 NXi has already proved to be popular with original equipment manufacturers. Virtually all general aviation aircraft manufacturers with current models fitted with the G1000 have announced upgrades to NXi. It’s also being offered as a retrofit for the King Air 200, 300 and 350, including those already having older G1000 retrofit systems.
Flying Impressions
We strapped into the left seat of Garmin’s King Air 350 with Scott Frye, manager of integrated flight deck retrofit programs, in the right seat for a brief demo of the G1000 NXi. Our route would take us from San Diego-Montgomery-Gibbs Executive Airport to Parker, California, then back to the San Diego area for approaches at Carlsbad’s McClellan-Palomar Airport and El Cajon’s Gillespie Field before returning to Montgomery-Gibbs.
The G1000 NXi retrofit for the King Air slashes empty weight by up to 250 lb., resulting in the ability to carry an extra passenger with full fuel or fly 125 nm farther with maximum payload. Three displays dominate the instrument panel. Similar to the Citation Mustang’s, there are left and right 10.4-in. PFDs and a central 15-in. MFD. The large MFD allows a full two-column stack of engine instruments on the left side with plenty of room for a moving map on the remainder of the screen. The retrofit package has stand-alone left and right audio control panels that provide one-touch, top-level access to all radios, an audio recorder and the entertainment system. There is a flight guidance system mode control panel mounted below the center of the glareshield. Between the left PFD and MFD, there is a vertically mounted Mid-Continent Instruments Standby Attitude Module with an emergency battery.

The King Air retrofit mixes traditional Beech components with high-tech equipment from Garmin. The left side of the cockpit retains the decades-old Beech fuel control panel and analog quantity gauges. There is no CAS display on the EFIS. Stand-alone annunciator light panels are mounted in the glareshield and below the MFD.
As soon as we turned on the power, the improvements in the next-gen G1000 soon appeared. The displays have the same 1,024-by-768 resolution as the original G1000 screens, but they’re brighter and easier to read in the bright San Diego winter sunshine. The branding flash screens quickly timed out as built-in tests were complete. The boot-up process was considerably quicker than with the original G1000 system, such as the ones with which we’ve flown in the Citation Mustang, TBM 900 and Embraer Phenom 100, among other aircraft.
Creating new flight plans is considerably different than it is with first-gen G1000 systems, Frye explained. The origin and destination airports first are entered into designated fields, along with the active runway for each landing facility. That’s different from the original G1000. It required entry of all waypoints, including airports, into the body of the flight plan.

However, designating the departure airport and active runway enables SurfaceWatch to outline the selected runway with a cyan border to make it easy to identify on the MFD’s airport diagram. The diagram also shows the aircraft’s position on the surface and all taxiways with their names. From the Gibbs Flying Service ramp, for instance, we could see Runway 28R clearly outlined, along with all runway incursion hotspots, plus Taxiways J, H and A that we would use to get to the threshold. Once ADS-B is implemented fully, SurfaceWatch will show the proximate positions of other aircraft and vehicles on the airport surface.
Building the innards of the flight plan is a straightforward process. Typically, it starts by entering an anchor point waypoint for an airway or jet route, as applicable. Then, the airway or jet route is entered by name, followed by the transition or exit point. Published departure procedures and transitions can be added later, as provided by Clearance Delivery.
Approaching the destination, an arrival procedure and transition fix may be added as directed by ATC. Depending upon ATIS information, the active runway at the destination airport may require changing. Similar to entering runway data for the departure airport, entering the active runway for the destination airport enables high-level SurfaceWatch functions, including alerting the crew if the selected runway is too short.

Most flight-planning chores can be accomplished using the Garmin Pilot application for Apple iPads and iPhones, then uploading the plan using the G1000 NXi’s optional Connext Wi-Fi/Bluetooth data links. While that capability was not yet available in Garmin’s King Air 350, we previously explored its features in Garmin’s hangar at New Century Airport in Olathe, Kansas.
The Pilot app is easier to use than Tyson Weihs’ ForeFlight or Hilton Goldstein’s WingX Pro, in our opinion. But it lacks some of the competitors’ features, such as the ability to add an instrument approach to the flight plan. Its trump card is its full interoperability with Garmin flight decks equipped with the dual-band Flight Stream 510 Wi-Fi/Bluetooth transceiver. Do all the heavy lifting for flight planning at home and then just upload it once you’re in the cockpit. It also retrieves worldwide weather data, including NEXRAD, satellite and winds/temperatures aloft images and the full range of text products, plus TFRs. You can also use the Pilot app to file flight plans.
The Pilot app may be used to download FMS navigation databases and upload them to the G1000 NXi using Flight Stream 510. Once airborne, the Pilot app enables the crew to use it as an EFB hosting paperless charts, display NEXRAD radar imagery or even serve as a backup PFD, complete with synthetic vision. But we recommend making sure the cockpit also has USB charging ports for the tablets.
The Pilot app also is handy for passengers aboard aircraft with Flight Stream 510 and the G1000 NXi. They can use it to listen to Sirius XM satellite radio music from the avionics system and monitor aircraft progress along the flight plan route, including watching developing weather patterns.

After engine start, we taxied to Runway 28R. Make a note. As with virtually all first-generation synthetic vision systems, the Garmin PFDs make it appear as though you’re taxiing through tall grass rather than keeping on the centerlines of the pavement. Adding buildings, obstacles and topography, including taxiways, signage and hot spots are opportunities for growth in this SVS’s capabilities.
Once all those King Air prop governor and auto-feather checks were complete, we called for takeoff and headed for Parker VOR via Julian and Thermal. Once level in the mid-20s, we had time to explore some of the system’s new features. Frye showed us the G1000 NXi’s new HSI map overlays, including GWX 70 or Sirius XM weather data, traffic, lightning, relative terrain or topography. As some of these features are buried two or three, or even four, levels down in submenus, it’s best to explore them during prolonged high-altitude cruise or when chocked in the hangar and connected to ground power.
Missing from the system is the choice of HSI 360-deg. rose or 120-deg. arc presentations; full HSI compass rose-only is available. We’d like to see an arc/rose choice function added and we’d like to see it available as a top-level, one-touch switch.
We also explored the Electronic Stability and Protection (ESP) functions that help prevent inadvertent attitude, angle of attack (AOA) and redline airspeed/Mach limit excursions. If, for instance, the pilot exceeds 45 deg. angle of bank, ESP engages to nudge the aircraft back to a 30-deg. bank angle at which point it disengages. Once ESP engages at 45-deg. bank angle, the force with which it helps roll the aircraft back to 30 deg. increases all the way to 75 deg. At that point, the autopilot roll engagement limit is reached and the system disengages. ESP is disabled when the aircraft is below 200 ft. AGL or when the autopilot is engaged.
ESP also engages at predetermined pitch limits. For the King Air, it’s set at 20-deg. nose up and 17-deg. nose down. It nudges the nose up at Vmo or Mmo and pushes it down if the aircraft approaches stalling angle of attack. The AOA protection feature is required for coupled go-around.
Next, we headed to McClellan-Palomar Airport to fly the RNAV (RNP) Y Runway 24 procedure that offers 200-ft. ceiling — 0.75-mi. minimums. We were cleared direct to the ZASOG IAF. There are a series of step-down fixes prior to the LPV glidepath intercept that would give us an opportunity to sample the system’s vertical navigation capabilities.
But a late descent clearance clouded our ability to see how well the VNAV function works despite the prevailing clear weather. Eventually, we captured the 245-deg. inbound course and 3.3-deg. LPV glidepath at the final approach fix and let autopilot fly the procedure.
Just above minimums, we touched the go-around button, added power and configured the aircraft for the missed approach. Air traffic control constraints, though, prevented us from flying the full MAP, including entering the holding pattern about 5 mi. west of the shoreline.
Next, we headed east to fly the Localizer D approach to Runway 27R at El Cajon’s Gillespie Field. The 269-deg. inbound course is aligned with the runway centerline, but high terrain just east of the airport requires a 6.88-deg. plunge from the last fix to the runway. The steep descent exceeds FAA TERPs limits for straight-in approaches, so only circling minima are published.
So, for vertical guidance, we opted to use the visual approach function built into the system. But the only glidepath angle available is 3 deg. We intentionally chose this mode to illustrate the precautions that must be taken when selecting it.
As we approached within 6 mi. of the airport, the PFD’s synthetic vision cautioned us about the areas of CFIT risk as we descended to within 1,000 ft. of terrain ahead by displaying the proximate terrain contours in yellow. At 5 mi., we had descended within 100 ft. of terrain ahead, so SVS displayed those high risk areas in red. When we approached closely to the terrain ahead, we received TAWS aural alerts and warnings.
The takeaway from the exercise was clear. If pilots opt to use the 3-deg. visual approach mode, they must verify that the approach path is free of terrain and obstacle hazards.
We executed a go-around at the TAWS alert and returned to Montgomery-Gibbs for the ILS Runway 28R approach and landing.
Post-Flight Takeaway
The G1000 NXi approaches the capabilities of Garmin’s top-line G3000 and G5000 systems, having greatly improved display brightness and robust graphics processing, plus several upmarket features such as dual-band connectivity with iPads running the Garmin Pilot app, Iridium satcom weather, voice and text messaging, and flight logging.
The next-gen G1000 system provides virtually all the tools needed to enhance situational awareness, reduce pilot workload and warn pilots about traffic, terrain and weather hazards.
Its GFC 700 autopilot is one of the smoothest and most precise with which we’ve flown. It’s capable of flying virtually any type of straight-in instrument approach. ESP, along with autopilot coupled go-around capability, is a strong safety enhancement for single-pilot IFR operations. The next-gen G1000’s terrain, traffic and weather avoidance technologies are impressive. Garmin’s 40-watt, solid-state GWX 70 weather radar is a worthwhile optional upgrade, especially as it can be ordered with Doppler turbulence detection and ground clutter suppression.
But there’s still room for improvement in two key areas, in our opinion. We believe the synthetic vision system would benefit from the inclusion of a 3-D airport view, similar to Gulfstream’s PlaneView aboard the G500 and G600. As noted, we also believe it needs one-touch, top-level access to HSI rose and arc displays. And we’d like to see an adjustable glidepath angle for visual approaches.
Convenience and subordinate features abound, redefining what general aviation pilots expect from their avionics systems. No longer do they only want to use such systems for attitude, heading and performance monitoring, along with position, navigation, communication and surveillance functions. Thus, the G1000 NXi has far more features and functions than traditional avionics systems installed in high-end turbine aircraft.
The G1000 NXi gives general aviation pilots plenty of extras they enjoy, including music, air-to-ground voice connectivity and text messaging, trip odometers, maximum ground-speed records, Ac-U-Kwik airport directory access and even oil change reminders. And they can store individualized pilot profiles so that the avionics system remembers the user’s preferences, just as occurs in high-end luxury cars.
If the G1000 NXi were adapted for automotive uses, automakers likely would disable certain nonessential features while the vehicle is in motion. That would be especially critical to safe operation considering some menus are four layers deep.
But the G1000 NXi has no such restrictions in aircraft. Nonessentials are not grayed out when the aircraft is in motion, when it’s not in stable cruise or when it’s approaching the destination airport. It’s up to the crew to decide when and where it’s safe to explore and use such features. This is a sophisticated system that demands cockpit discipline and crew resource management to keep focused on the time-proven, safety-of-flight priorities of aviate, navigate and communicate. 

SST - Curt Lewis video

The World's Fastest Jet Will Fly You From L.A. To Sydney in 6 Hours

The XB-1 will be the first independently-developed supersonic jet, and the fastest civil airplane ever made.

Right now, the fastest nonstop flight from Los Angeles to Sydney is 15 hours. The Boom Supersonic's XB-1 aims to make it in a little over 6 hours - and it's coming soon. Also called the "baby boom," the XB-1 will be world's fastest and highest-flying jet. Once it's in the air, same-day returns on around 500 routes worldwide will be a reality.

Boom just received $33 million in Series A funding from a group which includes The Spaceship Company of Virgin Galactic. This brings its grand total in raised funds to $41 million, enough to finish and test the jet. With a building cost of $329 million, Boom will be recouping some of the costs with expensive tickets: about $6,600 for one of its 45 seats.

With the possibility of flying from San Francisco to Tokyo in only 5 hours - or New York to London in only 3 hours and 15 minutes - as soon as 2020, it seems likely those 45 seats will go fast.


According to its parent, Boom, the XB-1 will be the first independently-developed supersonic jet, and the fastest civil airplane ever made. At 1,451 miles per hour, it will travel 10 percent faster than the Concorde did. It will also fly higher, at around 60,000 feet. This will give passengers a smoother, quieter ride. Every passenger also gets their way on the Baby Boom, because its two single-seat rows makes each seat both window and aisle.

All the additions are nice, but frankly, they had us at "same-day returns" - and 6 hours instead of 15.

SpaceX did it again - Curt Lewis Video

Used SpaceX Rocket Launches Satellite, Then Lands in Historic 1st Reflight

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket soared off a seaside launch pad at NASA's Kennedy Space Center here today (March 30) on an unprecedented second mission to deliver a spacecraft into orbit, proving the booster's reusability.

The two-stage, 23-story-tall rocket lifted off at 6:27 p.m. EDT (2227 GMT) in the second launch in two weeks for Elon Musk's SpaceX, which is ramping up its flight rate following an accident in September.

Perched on top of the rocket, which sported a new upper stage and payload fairing, was the 11,645-lb. (5,282 kilograms) SES-10 communications satellite, which is intended to provide TV, internet and other services to customers in Latin America. [In Photos: SpaceX Launches, Lands 1st Reused Falcon 9 Rocket]

"This is a really, really exciting step forward," Martin Halliwell, chief technology officer of Luxembourg-based SES, said before launch. "I think the whole industry is looking."

The rocket's first stage previously lifted off in April 2016, sending SpaceX's robotic Dragon cargo ship on its way to the International Space Station for NASA. The booster then landed on one of SpaceX's robotic "drone ships" in the ocean and was refurbished for reflight, a key component of Musk's goal to cut launch costs.

The Falcon 9 first stage aced its landing again tonight, settling softly onto the deck of the drone ship "Of Course I Still Love You."

"It's an amazing day for ... the space industry," Musk said shortly after the rocket touched down. "It means you can fly and refly an orbit-class booster, which is the most expensive part of the rocket. This is going to be ultimately a huge revolution in spaceflight."

SpaceX also successfully recovered the Falcon 9's payload fairing - the nose cone that protected SES-10 during liftoff - Musk revealed during a post-launch teleconference with reporters. The $6 million fairing achieved its own soft landing in the Atlantic Ocean using an onboard thruster system and a parachute, Musk said.

"That was definitely the cherry on the cake," he said, adding that SpaceX intends to re-fly payload fairings just as it does Falcon 9 first stages.

SpaceX has now launched and landed Falcon 9 first stages nine different times. Six of these touchdowns have occurred on drone ships, and three have taken place on terra firma at Cape Canaveral. (SpaceX would ideally like to bring all its boosters back on land, Musk has said, but some missions use so much fuel on the ascent phase that ocean touchdowns are necessary.)

Today's launch continues what is expected to be a busy year for both SpaceX, which is aiming to fly about every two to three weeks, and for SES, which has nine more satellites awaiting rides into orbit. Three of those trips will employ Falcon 9 rockets, and the company is open to using previously flown boosters again, Halliwell said.

SES-10 was to be delivered into an initial elliptical orbit ranging from 135 miles (218 kilometers) to 22,002 miles (35,410 km) above the planet and inclined about 26.2 degrees relative to the equator.

Over the next month or so, the satellite will maneuver itself until it reaches its intended operational circular orbit some 22,300 miles (35,800 km) above the equator and in a relatively fixed position at 67 degrees west longitude, SES representatives have said.

Today's launch was SpaceX's third from Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39A, which hosted most of the Apollo moon mission and space shuttle liftoffs. In 2014, SpaceX signed a 20-year lease to use the pad.

SpaceX is not the first company to launch a booster to space multiple times. Blue Origin, which is run by founder Jeff Bezos, launched and landed the same New Shepard rocket five times between November 2015 and October 2016. But all of those New Shepard missions were test flights to suborbital, not orbital, space.

FlyViking med trang fødsel - NRK Nordland

FlyViking kansellerer flere flyvninger

Det nyoppstartede flyselskapet melder kanselleringer i dag og de nærmeste dagene.

To døgn etter første flytur melder FlyViking på Facebook at de er nødt til å kansellere flere flyvninger på grunn av oppstartsutfordringer.
– Det som har skjedd er at en pakning røk og vi fikk en liten oljelekkasje. Vi setter sikkerheten i høysetet og har valgt å reparere skaden før vi tar av igjen, sier Ola Giæver som er styreformann i FlyViking.

Skrur hele natten

FlyViking har foreløpig kun ett fly i arbeid. Det andre flyet blir klart over helgen.
Dermed blir passasjerer som har booket billett flyttet til andre avganger. Dersom det ikke passer, lover selskapet å betale tilbake billettpris og kompensere for de ulempene som endret reise medfører.
– Vi skal ivareta våre kunder på beste måte og vi jobber intenst for å komme à jour med ruteplanen. Vi får inn en del med et fly klokken elleve og skal skru hele natta. Vi håper og forventer å ha flyet klart i morgen tidlig, sier Giæver.

Skal skaffe flere fly

Det nye, nordnorske flyselskapet FlyViking startet mandag med ruteflyvninger mellom Tromsø, Hammerfest og Bodø.
På sikt håper flyselskapet å utvide tilbudet også til Vadsø, Kirkenes, Mo i Rana, Sandnessjøen, Brønnøysund, Ørsta/Volda og Oslo. Planen er å skaffe 5–6 nye fly i løpet av året.
Det siste året har NRK fulgt Ola Giæver og hans nyoppstartede flyselskap FlyViking tett og laget en dokumentarserie på nett. Den finner du her.

P-8 Poseidon - Oppdatering fra Teknisk Ukeblad

Norge har inngått kontrakt om kjøp av fem nye P-8A Poseidon maritime patruljefly.
Norge har inngått kontrakt om kjøp av fem nye P-8A Poseidon maritime patruljefly. (Bilde: Boeing)


Norges nye patruljefly skal angripe ubåter fra 30 tusen fot

Norge kjøper fem maritime patruljefly for cirka 10 milliarder kroner.

Forsvaret undertegnet onsdag kontrakt med amerikanske myndigheter om kjøp av fem P-8A Poseidon maritime patruljefly.
Kostnadsrammen er på rundt ti milliarder kroner. Det første flyet lander på norsk jord i 2022, og alle flyene vil være på plass innen utgangen av det året.
Mens dagens P-3 Orion må ned i bølgehøyde for å slippe torpedoer, forberedes etterkommeren P-8A Poseidon for å integreres med en ny type torpedo som kan slippes fra 30.000 fot.

Torpedoer klare i 2020

Samme dag som Norge undertegnet kontrakten om kjøp av fem fly, rapporterer produsenten Boeing og US Navy at de er i rute med å teste våpenet, melder blant andre Flight Global.
«High Altitude Anti-submarine warfare weapon capability» (HAAWC) kalles Lockheed Martin-systemet som blant annet består av gps-styring og vinger montert på torpedoene. Industrien er midt inne i slipptester, som handler om å demonstere trygg separasjon fra flyet, mens flytesting er planlagt mot slutten av året. Torpedoene skal være klar i 2020, altså et par år før Norge mottar sine første fly.
Evnen til å angripe ubåter fra stor høyde, går for så vidt inn også I en debatt som handler om P-8s evne til å fly lavt og sakte og lenge slik forgjengeren P-3 kan. P-8 har sterkere vinger enn 737, som den bygger på, men det handler også om at to jetmotorer har en annen karakteristikk enn P-3s fire turboprop-motorer.
Når det gjelder det kommende missilet JSM fra Kongsberg, som integreres i F-35, har ikke Norge stilt krav om dette. Norge kjøper direkte fra pågående produksjonslinje.
Australia mottok det første av tolv bestilte P-8A i fjor høst.
Australia mottok det første av tolv bestilte P-8A i fjor høst. Foto: Boeing

– Det er klart at vi høyst gjerne ser JSM bli integrert på P-8, men det er per i nå ingen slik aktivitet, opplyser kommunikasjonssjef Kyrre Lohne i Kongsberg Defence Systems.
Også Australia, som bidrar i JSM-utviklingen, er nylig blitt P-8-bruker.

Bra plattform

– Ved siden av selve flyene, vil anskaffelsen også omfatte moderne sensorer, overvåkings- og støttesystemer og nye antiubåtvåpen. P-8A Poseidon kan dekke store havområder på kort tid og oppholde seg lenge i et operasjonsområde, sier forsvarsminister Ine Eriksen Søreide (H) i en pressemelding.
Flyene kan samle informasjon, oppdage, identifisere, følge og om nødvendig ramme mål under vann. De produseres av Boeing Defense, Space & Security og bygger på flytypen Boeing 737–800.
– P-8A Poseidon er en formidabel plattform for overvåking av våre havområder og vil gi både norske og allierte sivile og militære myndigheter et godt grunnlag for beslutninger, sier Eriksen Søreide i meldingen.

Omfattende kontrakt

I tillegg til flyene omfatter anskaffelsen moderne sensorer, overvåkings- og støttesystemer og nye antiubåtvåpen.
– P-8A Poseidon kan dekke store havområder på kort tid og oppholde seg lenge i et operasjonsområde, sier forsvarsministeren.
Det ble blant annet brukt under letingen etter flyet fra Malaysia Airlines som forsvant på vei fra Kuala Lumpur til Beijing i 2014.
P-8A Poseidon vil erstatte dagens seks P-3 Orion og tre DA-20 Jet Falcon.
– Prosjektets kostnadsramme utgjør om lag ti milliarder kroner i tillegg til en andel som vil gå over Etterretningstjenestens budsjetter. Anskaffelsens totale kostnader ligger innenfor kostnadsrammen i langtidsplanen for Forsvaret, sier statsråden.

Strategisk kapasitet

I sin begrunnelse for kjøpet viser departementet blant annet til at norske havområder er om lag sju ganger større enn landområdene og at avstandene er store. Norske og tilstøtende havområder har fått økt militærstrategisk betydning, og lite tyder på at betydningen blir mindre i årene som kommer, heter det.
Det bemerkes også at overvåking under vann er teknologisk krevende. Kombinasjonen av nye sikkerhetspolitiske omgivelser og nye generasjoner ubåter i norske nærområder, innebærer at moderne sensorer og systemer for overvåking er avgjørende, skriver departementet.
– P-8A Poseidon vil fortsette i et kjent og etablert operasjonsmønster. En videreføring av denne aktiviteten med norske fly vil bidra til å sikre fortsatt stabilitet og forutsigbarhet i området, samt at norske allianseforpliktelser ivaretas, sier Eriksen Søreide.
Flyet vil være et vesentlig bidrag til suverenitetshevdelse og myndighetsutøvelse. Flyene vil også være viktige for søk og redning til havs utenfor Norge, og et viktig bidrag til samfunnssikkerheten gjennom evnen til å bidra i maritime kontraterroroperasjoner.
Også Storbritannia er i ferd med å anskaffe P-8A, og sammen med USA og Norge vil den samlede evnen til å overvåke havområdene i Nord-Atlanteren øke betydelig.

Orion kunne fløyet 20 år til

Norge har seks Orion-maskiner. To ble levert i 1968-69 (P-3N) og fire i 1988-89 (P-3C UIP).
Dette var det tredje norske Orion-flyet med fullførst ASLEP.
Dette var det tredje norske Orion-flyet med fullførst ASLEP. Foto: Thor Stromsnes

Som Teknisk Ukeblad omtalte for halvannet år siden, er det brukt cirka 1,2 milliarder kroner i nye vinger, ny avionikk og oppgraderte operasjonssystemer. Sammen med en reservedelavtale med Tyskland og Airbus, gjør dette dem i stand til å kunne holde oppsyn med norske havområder i minst 20 år til. Nå blir de altså faset ut om fem år.
Dronen MQ-4C Triton.
Dronen MQ-4C Triton.Foto: ALAN RADECKI

Tyskland har åtte P-3C fly som de kjøpte fra Nederland for tolv år siden. De ble opprinnelig anskaffet på første halvdel av 1980-tallet. Tyskland har planer om å bruke sine Orion-fly lengre enn til 2035. Avtalen vil dermed gjort at Norge også kunne operert flyene like lenge.
Når det gjelder USA og Australia, bytter disse ut sine Orion-fly med en miks av Poseidon og det ubemannede overvåkingsflyet MQ-4C Triton - den maritime versjonen av RQ-4 Global Hawk.
En av dronens viktigste kapasiteter er rekkevidde og utholdenhet. Produsenten Northrop Grumman har kjørt simuleringer som viser hvordan ett fly kan fly rundt ytterkanten av hele Norges økonomiske sone. Denne strekningen er cirka 4 400 nautiske mil (8 100 km) og tar om lag 14 timer å fly. Triton klarer to hele runder før den må lande igjen.

F-18 med økende antall oksygenrelaterte problemer - Curt Lewis

Trump's Favorite Fighter Jet Keeps Starving Pilots of Oxygen

Navy still has no solution to recurring 'physiological events'

Trump favors Boeing's Super Hornet over Lockheed's F-35C
U.S. Navy crew members stand on deck as a F-18 Super Hornet fighter plane takes off from the deck of USS George Washington. Source: Pool via Getty Images

As President Donald Trump pushes for the Pentagon to buy more of Boeing Co.'s F-18 aircraft, the U.S. Navy is grappling with an escalating problem: Pilots suffering potentially dangerous oxygen deprivation or a loss of cabin pressure in the fighter jets.

All F-18 models, including the Super Hornet that Trump has championed, have shown steady annual increases in what the Navy calls "physiological episodes," according to service testimony obtained by Bloomberg News. What's more, the data show that incidents of oxygen deprivation and cabin decompression have escalated in the last year, while service officials work to determine the root cause of the in-flight problems.

Trump's promotion of the Super Hornet began in December, when the president-elect said in a Twitter posting, "Based on the tremendous cost and cost overruns of the Lockheed Martin F-35, I have asked Boeing to price-out a comparable F-18 Super Hornet!" Translating Trump's request into action, Defense Secretary James Mattis commissioned a review of improvements that would "provide a competitive, cost effective, fighter aircraft alternative" to the F-35C, the Navy version of Lockheed Martin Corp.'s Joint Strike Fighter.

"Since May 1, 2010, all models" of the F-18 "show steady, yearly increases in the number of physiological episodes," according to a staff memo prepared in advance of a hearing Tuesday of a House Armed Services subcommittee. Navy officials testifying before the committee called the problem the "No.1 safety issue."

"I am concerned about this growing trend -- one that has a significant effect on readiness and one that needs to be fixed," Representative Mike Turner, the Ohio Republican who leads the Tactical Air and Land Forces subcommittee, said in his opening statement.

Despite good-faith efforts, the "lack of overall progress" is "of great concern," said Representative Niki Tsongas, the panel's top Democrat.

Past Problem

This isn't the first time a high-performance U.S. military aircraft that flies at high altitudes has run into such episodes. In 2012, the Air Force had to track down a mystery after at least a dozen pilots flying Boeing's F-22 Raptor fighters became dizzy and disoriented. The service eventually determined a valve that regulated oxygen flow into the Raptor pilot's pressure vest was too weak to prevent the vest from inflating unnecessarily and restricting the pilot's ability to breathe.

The newest versions of the F-18 -- the Super Hornet and the Growler, which is tailored to jam an adversary's electronics -- "appear to have challenges in regards to hypoxia," according to the memo on the problem written by staff members of House subcommittee. Hypoxia is a deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the body's tissues.

Older versions of the plane, the A through D models, have problems with cabin pressure. Decompression sickness occurs due to cockpit depressurization at altitude and the resulting formation of nitrogen bubbles in the body's venous system and other organs. The incidents point to the plane's environmental control system.

The rate of reported occurrences of the physiological episodes per 100,000 flight hours almost doubled in the year ended Oct. 31 from the previous year on older F-18 models. They doubled on the newest Growlers and increased 11 percent for the newer Super Hornet.

That resulted in 45 instances for the Super Hornet versus 39 the previous year, according to Navy statistics obtained by Bloomberg. The trend continued in the three months since Nov. 1, with nine incidents reported by Jan. 31 during 28,600 hours of flying.

The Super Hornet and Growler issues "would appear to point to the onboard oxygen generating" system to which the Navy' has made changes, the staff memo said.

"We are working closely with the Navy's Physiological Episode Team to help identify root causes of physiological episodes and their solutions," Caroline Hutcheson, a spokeswoman for Chicago-based Boeing, said in an email. "We take safety in flight very seriously and will continue to assist the Navy on the way forward."

'Reduced-Oxygen Training'

The Navy is conducting "fleet awareness" briefings for pilots and "has enhanced reduced-oxygen training so that pilots can more quickly determine when he or she is having symptoms of hypoxia," according to the congressional staff memo, which said the service has installed chambers on two aircraft carriers to provide therapy "to pilots that have been exposed to decompression."

"Moving forward, we will continue to fly while applying every resource to solve this challenging problem," the top aviation officials for the Navy and Marine Corps said Tuesday in a prepared statement.

A 62-person "Physiological Episode Team" set up in May 2010 continues assess root causes and solutions, the service officials said.

Of the 383 episodes evaluated by the Navy team so far, 130 "have involved some form of contamination," 114 involved an environmental control system component failure, 91 involved "human factors" and 50 concerned a component failure with the on-board oxygen generating system, the officials said.

An additional 13 involved a breathing-gas delivery component failure and 76 were inconclusive or involved another aircraft system not directly related to the breathing system, the officials said, with more than one cause found in a number of instances.

God utsikt - BBJ - Curt Lewis

The World's Largest Passenger-Jet Window Is Being Developed for the BBJ

SkyView will be available for the BBJ, BBJ 2, and all three versions of the BBJ Max

The SkyView Panoramic Window-the largest window available for any passenger jet-will offer Boeing Business Jet passengers an expanded view of the world below. At 54.5 inches by 19.5 inches, the SkyView is slightly more than three times wider than a standard window and about 40 percent taller. Boeing will be able to install as many as two pairs of the windows (each directly opposite the other) in a choice of locations aft of the wing.

The windows are made of acrylic and produced by GKN Aerospace's Fokker Technologies division, which has supplied all Boeing windows since 1996. Fokker treats each window's surface with an abrasion-resistant coating so that it remains clear. Custom blinds can be installed, in case the window allows too much light into the cabin.

The SkyView will be available for the BBJ, BBJ 2, and all three versions of the BBJ Max, including the new BBJ Max 7. It can be ordered as a retrofit for the existing fleet or as an option on new aircraft. The window will be installed during the custom completion process, not during the aircraft's production at the Boeing factory. It's still undergoing development and certification, so pricing is not yet available. First completions are expected in 2018. (,

Ballongflygere - Må ha samme krav til dem som CPL flygere - FAA - Curt Lewis

Treat balloon pilots like other pilots

A view of the hot air balloon crash site, Monday Aug. 1, 2016, where 16 people were killed on Saturday July 30, 2016 near Maxwell, Texas in Caldwell County.

Alfred "Skip" Nichols wasn't allowed to drive a car. He shouldn't have been allowed to pilot a commercial hot air balloon.

That basic premise is the starting point for addressing the obvious safety issues with commercial balloon flights, which are more dangerous than other forms of commercial flight.

Nichols was the pilot in a tragic commercial balloon crash that killed 16 people last summer near Lockhart just outside of Austin. He had numerous past drunken driving convictions in Missouri, and prior to the fatal flight Nichols had taken what one doctor has called a "witches' brew" of prescription drugs, including Valium, Prozac and oxycodone.

He should never have been piloting a nine-story-tall balloon with a gondola big enough to carry 16 passengers and a pilot. He should never have been allowed to launch on a foggy July morning with visibility so limited he failed to see power lines.

Federal Aviation Administration officials have repeatedly rebuffed efforts to better regulate commercial hot air balloon flights. In the past, the National Transportation Safety Board had pleaded with the FAA to regulate commercial balloon operators, citing recurring safety issues and predicting a tragedy like this would happen without better oversight.

The FAA recently issued a statement to Express-News investigative reporter John Tedesco, saying better regulations would not have prevented the Lockhart tragedy. The agency's argument is twofold: Better regulations would be based on flimsy self-reporting. Second, that the number of commercial hot air balloon flights are relatively small, and therefore so is the risk of tragedy.

It's not factually wrong to make such assertions, of course. But it's also not really intellectually honest to say there is nothing to be done. The FAA's response is incomplete, reflecting entrenched flawed policy. True, as the FAA asserts, better regulations might not have prevented the Lockhart tragedy. But they might have. They certainly would create a more professional environment, which would improve safety standards.

True, as the FAA asserts, there aren't nearly as many commercial balloon flights as airline or helicopter tours. But it's also true the crash rates for balloons are higher than for private and corporate aircraft. Also, the general public probably isn't aware it is much easier to get a pilot's certificate to fly a commercial balloon than other forms of flight.

Perhaps that's why pilot error accounted for more than half of the 140 private and commercial balloon crashes since 2005, Tedesco found after scouring aviation records. Nearly 1 in 5 incidents involved power lines. In that time, 70 passengers and pilots have been killed or injured.

It only makes sense to place commercial balloon pilots on par with other commercial pilots who conduct tours in terms of flight hours, medical tests and background checks. Whether the 16 passengers are in a hot air balloon or a private plane for a tour, the risks and purpose are the same. Pilots should have to qualify for a "letter of authorization" from the FAA, ensuring they meet basic expectations of passengers when it comes to experience and safety.

The FAA also needs to regulate the size of these balloons. As Tedesco reported, some can be as large as 11 stories tall in an effort to carry more passengers. Nichols' balloon was nine stories tall and would regularly hold 12 to 14 passengers.

Finally, there is the issue of ensuring the public is aware of a pilot's history. The Balloon Federation of America is developing a pilot rating system for consumer review, but Tedesco found flaws in this voluntary system. The FAA should require commercial pilots to disclose all crash history, if any, to potential passengers, as well as require an annual background check.

There is a strong anti-regulatory sentiment in Washington, D.C., which does not portend well for greater oversight of anything, especially something as "small" as the commercial balloon industry. But doing nothing is not a solution - as the FAA's past resistance on this issue shows. Doing nothing is an invitation to more fatal crashes. The families who lost loved ones in the Lockhart crash undeniably wish someone had done something.

It simply makes no sense not to hold commercial balloon pilots to the same standards as other commercial pilots. Nichols wasn't allowed to drive a car. Why was he allowed to fly a commercial hot air balloon with 16 passengers?