tirsdag 25. juli 2017

Drone - Russland med MALE - UAS Vision video

More About Russia’s MALE UAV Orion-E



Kronstadt Technologies unveiled the first Russian medium altitude long endurance (MALE) class unmanned aerial system (UAS) prototype, during the MAKS 2017 airshow.
Dubbed the Orion-E, 1 ton class surveillance UAV have been undergoing flight testing in the country since last year and had been revealed earlier through grainy images.
The UAV has an external design similar to the Thales WatchKeeper UAS, albeit with a different fuselage cross section.
With a wingspan of 16 m (52.5ft), the Orion-E is capable of automatic take off and landing, and fly continuously for 24 hours, carrying a surveillance payloads of up to 200 kg.
The fuselage is 8 m long and have high-aspect ratio wings with a V-tail. It can reach a max altitude of 7,500 m and have a range of 250 km.

Similar to the General Dynamics MQ-9 Reaper, forward and the canted main landing gear can be retracted into the fuselage. Orion-E is possibly powered by the 100 hp Saturn 36MT turboprop, which also powers the Indian DRDO Tapas UAV.
The Orion-E can be configured to carry various surveillance payloads including a forward looking infra-red (FLIR) turret, Synthetic aperture radar and high resolution cameras,
According to Kronstadt, the UAS is intended for export market and is expected to be ready by 2020. A more capable and heavier version in the 5-7 ton weight class is also planned to be developed as a follow on, which will have combat capabilities.

Droner - ICAO beveger seg vedr. regulations - UAS Vision

ICAO Calls for Global UAS Regulatory Framework



Opening the ICAO Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems Symposium in Abuja yesterday, ICAO Council President Dr. Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu stressed the importance of a globally coherent regulatory framework for the management of unmanned air traffic.
“If you consider a company envisaging a global drone fleet to enhance its deliveries, the value of having a myriad of domestic national regulations aligned via globally harmonised international standards becomes clearly apparent,” President Aliu remarked.
He also stressed the complexity of this task, notably in terms of the tremendous diversity of types and applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), and the need to place safety first.
“States are facing increasing pressure to open the door widely for unmanned aircraft, and while their socio-economic benefits seem clear, we must avoid the tendency to rush headlong into unmanned aircraft system operational frameworks which have not benefited from all due diligence and the careful regard required for existing airspace users.”
The ICAO RPAS Symposium provided an important and timely opportunity for operators and regulators to contribute their expertise to the airspace management framework ICAO will be developing. The UN specialised agency recently requested national governments, industry, academia and other stakeholders to submit concept proposals as of 15 July, and these will be reviewed by ICAO’s UAS Advisory Group (UAS-AG) to assess their validity. Selected submissions will then be presented at ‘DroneEnable’, ICAO’s upcoming UAS Industry Symposium.
In making these points, President Aliu noted that the implementation of the regulations demanded by UAS operations will likely increase the burden on States in terms of human resources. He highlighted ICAO’s efforts to address this challenge, pointing in particular to its current collaboration with the African Civil Aviation Commission (AFCAC) on the ICAO Human Resources Development Fund (HRDF).
Dr. Aliu further expressed his optimism about UAS operations and the contributions they will make to socio-economic development in Africa and around the world.
“We are already seeing new businesses and humanitarian operations leveraging these technologies and the opportunities they offer. This is occurring in ways that we had not envisioned even just a decade ago, and this evolution and innovation will only continue as more and more people allow their imaginations to take off, literally and figuratively,” he said.
Source: International Airport Review

DAT og Stord - Check-In

DAT ATR42-300 ved start fra Stord Lufthavn. (Foto: Stord Lufthavn)

DAT øger på indenrigsrute

Danish Air Transport skruer atter op for frekvenserne på indenrigsruten mellem Stord og Oslo, der betjenes med ATR42-fly.
Danish Air Transport (DAT) har tidligere haft betydelige aktiviteter i Norge, men det danske flyselskab er blevet fortrængt af Widerøe, der har vundet flere statslige udbud om kontraktflyvninger, som DAT tidligere har besiddet.
I dag betjener DAT indenrigsruten mellem Stord og Oslo, ligesom selskabet flyver fra Stavanger til henholdvis Esbjerg og Billund. Det er således ruter med olieselskaberne som passagergrundlag, at DAT holder fast i.
Ruten mellem Stord og Oslo har DAT brandet som Stordflyet, i lighed med Bornholmerflyet mellem København og Bornholm. Denne norske indenrigsrute har DAT betjent med 11 ugentlige rotationer, men fra den 21. april i år blev der øget til 12 rotationer, og det stopper ikke her. Fra den 24. august vil DAT flyve en ekstra rotation om torsdagen, så der bliver i alt 13 ugentlige returflyvninger.
“Som følge af den positive trafikudvikling har Stordflyet fra og med uge 34 indsat en ekstra rotation på torsdage. Lufthavnsledelsen arbejder nu med at sikre ekstra rotationer på fredage og søndag på grund af den store efterspørgsel,” skriver lufthavnen på sin hjemmeside.

Offshoresektor sikrer vækst
I første halvår af 2017 har 13.697 passagerer benytte sig af de lokale flytilbud fra Stord til hovedstaden. Sammenlignet med 2016 er der en stigning på 976 rejsende, hvilket svarer til 7,7 procent.

Lufthavnen i Stord får af og til besøg af ubudne gæster. (Foto: Jan Morten Myklebust)
Ruten betjenes i øjeblikket fast af et 46-sæders ATR42-300 fly fra DAT med registreringen OY-CIU. Dette fly har tidligere været beskæftiget hos Cimber Air i Danmark.
Stord er en kommune i Hordaland i det sydvestlige Norge nord for Haugesund. Det er også navnet på øen Stord, der sammen med øerne Huglo og Føvno samt en del mindre øer og holme udgør den lille kommune.
Offshore-sektoren har flere tusinde ansatte i området i selskaberne Kværner Stord, Kværner Solutions samt Apply Lerair. Kværner Stord sikrede sig i foråret en kontrakt med Statoil, der vil sikre beskæftigelse for omkring 3.000 årsværk mange år frem i tiden.

Norwegian får kritikk for å ha fløyet unødvendig lenge på èn motor - Check-In


Jeg viser til min kommentar vedr. hendelsen. Nøyaktig samme kommentar kommer fra mange nå. Når en attpåtil leser at det var problemer med å få frem reservedeler, er det enda større grunn til å ha valgt SeaTac like syd for Seattle. En må forvente at RR har reservedeler tilgjengelig på Everett, like nord for Seattle. Det er dog pussig å lese fra kommentaren under at "da risikoen for et stop på motor nummer to kan bringe flyvesikkerheden i fare." Vel, flyet blir da et glidefly og kun flaks kan berge flyet og de ombordværende. Ennvidere; Norwegian peker på at det ikke var feil på motoren. Spiller ingen som helst rolle når flygerne oppfatter at det var det. Feil på en indikator har samme konsekvens som feil på motoren. Tåpelig fra Norwegian. (Red.)


Norwegian Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner (Foto: Eric Salard)

Fløj to timer på én motor

Norwegian modtager kritik for at have fløjet i to timer på én motor, da et Dreamliner-fly måtte vende om på vej fra Oakland til Oslo.
Norwegian har i denne sommer været uheldige med selskabets Dreamliner-fly, der er udstyret med Rolls-Royce Trent 1000-motorer. Det er således tredje gang i løbet af blot seks uger, at et af selskabets langdistancefly måtte vende om på en USA-flyvning, efter at der var konstateret indikation af olielækage fra den ene af flyets to motorer.
Seneste tilfælde opstod med en Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner med registreringen LN-LNB, der forlod Oakland International Airport lørdag den 22. juli kl. 20.25 omkring en time og 25 minutter forsinket i forhold til tidtabellen. Da flyet var cirka to timer inde i den næsten ti timer lange flyvning til Oslo, fik piloterne en indikation af, at der var en olielækage i den ene motor. Flyet befandt sig da i 37.000 fods højde (11.278 meter, red.) omkring 150 kilometer vest for Calgary, og piloterne besluttede derfor at returnere til Oakland.
Efter yderligere 20 minutters flyvning fandt piloterne det nødvendigt at lukke den problemramte motor ned og fortsatte derefter til Oakland med næsten to timers flyvning tilbage efter først at være gået ned til en højde på 22.000 fod (6.705 kilometer, red.). Herefter landede flyet sikkert tilbage i den californiske lufthavn kl. 00.30.
Ifølge Aviation Herald har Norwegian sidenhen forklaret, at der ingen fejl var på den pågældende motor. Mandag aften holdt flyet dog stadig i lufthavnen i Oakland.
“Desværre blev denne afgang udsat til tirsdag morgen lokal tid, fordi Boeing ikke kunne levere den korrekte reservedel til os,” siger presseansvarlig Daniel Kirchhoff fra Norwegian til norske Aftenposten.

Kritik i pilotkredse
Norwegian er efterhånden vant til at modtage kritik fra skuffede passagerer, der må vente flere flere dage på næste afgang og overnatte i lufthavne, da det ikke er muligt for flyselskabet at skaffe de nødvendige hotelværelser eller billetter til alternative flyselskaber til et fyldt Dreamliner-fly med op imod 300 passagerer.
Men kritikken kommer denne gang til Norwegian i forskellige pilot-fora, hvor erfarne piloter undrer sig over. hvorfor den ansvarlige flykaptajn på rutenummer DY7064 ikke valgte at søge til nærmeste lufthavn med egnet landingsbane, hvilket er reglerne, når den ene af flyets to motorer må lukkes ned. Her kunne piloterne eksempelvis have valgt lufthavnene i Calgary, Seattle og Portland i stedet for at returnere til Oakland.
Der spekuleres i, om Norwegian-piloterne har fået ordre fra flyets operationsafdeling til at søge mod Oakland, fordi det herfra var lettere at ombooke passagererne til andre Norwegian-ruter til Europa, selvom Seattle var den nærmeste store vestkystlufthavn med talrige flyforbindelser til Europa med andre selskaber. I givet fald kan piloterne have kompromitteret sikkerheden for at sikre en billigere løsning af den aktuelle driftsforstyrrelse.
De civile amerikanske luftfartsmyndigheder godkendte i 2014 Boeing 787 Dreamliner-flyene til såkaldte ETOPS 330-operationer (Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards, red.), hvilket vil sige, at flyene er godkendt til operationer med en motor ude af drift mere end 330 minutters flyvning væk fra en egnet lufthavn til diversions eller sikkerhedslandinger. Trods ETOPS-certificeringen – der blot er udtryk for flyets præstationsevne – er det praksis, at der søges nærmeste lufthavn med én motor ude af drift, da risikoen for et stop på motor nummer to kan bringe flyvesikkerheden i fare.
CHECK-IN.dk har forsøgt at få en kommentar fra Norwegians kommunikationsafdeling.

Norwegian-passasjerer strandet i California siden lørdag

  • Ifølge Avinor ble 0,6 prosent av Norwegians ankomster kansellert i juni, og 22 prosent ble forsinket. Tilsvarende tall for SAS er 1,2 prosent kanselleringer og 18 prosent forsinkelser.FOTO: Gorm Kallestad / NTB scanpix
Norwegian har ikke greid å skaffe hotellrom til alle passasjerene som har ventet på et fly fra Oakland i USA til Oslo siden lørdag.
Mandag har to Norwegian-flyvninger fra Gardermoen blitt kansellert, mens tre ankomster er kansellert, inkludert et fly fra Oakland utenfor San Francisco.
Flyet fra Oakland skulle satt kursen mot Oslo klokken 19 lokal tid lørdag. Etter to timer i luften snudde flyet og måtte nødlande på samme flyplass på grunn av en oljelekkasje.
Overnattet på flyplassen
Klokken halv seks søndag morgenmeldte Norwegian at de hadde problemer med å skaffe hotellovernatting til passasjerene, men at de som ordnet seg rom selv, ville få dekket utgiftene. Vår samarbeidspartner på flyplassen skal ha forsøkt å finne ledige hotellrom, men det var svært vanskelig, sier presseansvarlig i Norwegian, Daniel Kirchhoff, til NTB.En av passasjerene, Lise Knapper Lunde, forteller til NTB at hun sov en natt på flyplassen. NTB har fått ubekreftede meldinger om passasjerer som har sovet på flyplassen siden lørdag, men Kirchhoff kan ikke kommentere dette.
Tredobling av flyklager, frykter strøm av nye Norwegian-saker– Dårlig informasjon
- Flyet ble utsatt til mandag morgen, og så kansellert igjen.– Informasjonen har vært dårlig, vi sto opp klokken 4 i dag fordi vi skulle rekke flyet som var satt opp klokken 7.30, og fikk først beskjed da om at det var innstilt, sier Lise Knapper Lund.– Dessverre ble denne avgangen utsatt til tirsdag morgen lokal tid, fordi Boeing ikke klarte å levere korrekt reservedel til oss, sier Kirchhoff.– Vi forstår selvsagt at dette er frustrerende og beklager overfor passasjerene, forsikrer Kirchhoff.

mandag 24. juli 2017

Typhoon class sub - Wikipedia

 

Typhoon-class submarine

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Typhoon class
Typhoon class SSBN.svg
Typhoon-class SSBN profile
Typhoon class
Typhoon-class submarine underway
Class overview
Name:Akula (Акула) (NATO: Typhoon)
Builders:Sevmash, designed by Rubin
Operators:
Preceded by:Delta class submarine
Succeeded by:Borei class submarine
Built:1976–1986
In service:1981–present
In commission:1981–1989
Planned:7
Completed:6
Cancelled:1
Active:1
Laid up:2
Retired:3
General characteristics
Type:Ballistic missile submarine
Displacement:
  • 23,200–24,500 t (22,830–24,110 long tons) surfaced
  • 33,800–48,000 t (33,270–47,240 long tons) submerged
Length:175 m (574 ft 2 in)
Beam:23 m (75 ft 6 in)
Draught:12 m (39 ft 4 in)
Propulsion:
  • 2 × OK-650 pressurized-water nuclear reactors, 190 MWt each
  • 2 × VV-type steam turbines, 37 MW (49,600 hp) each
  • 2 shafts with 7-bladed shrouded screws
Speed:
  • 22.22 knots (41.15 km/h; 25.57 mph) surfaced
  • 27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph) submerged
Endurance:120+ days submerged[1]
Test depth:400 m (1,300 ft)
Complement:160[1]
Armament:
The Project 941 or Akula, Russian "Акула" ("Shark") class submarine (NATO reporting name: Typhoon) is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s. With a submerged displacement of 48,000 tonnes,[1] the Typhoons are the largest class of submarine ever built,[3] large enough to accommodate decent living facilities for the crew when submerged for months on end.[4] The source of the NATO reporting name remains unclear, although it is often claimed to be related to the use of the word "typhoon" ("тайфун") by Leonid Brezhnev in a 1974 speech while describing a new type of nuclear ballistic missile submarine, as a reaction to the US Navy Ohio-class submarines.[5]
The Russian Navy canceled its Typhoon modernization program in March 2012, stating that modernizing one Typhoon would be as expensive as building two new Borei-class submarines.[6] With the announcement that Russia has eliminated the last SS-N-20 Sturgeon SLBMs in September 2012, the remaining Typhoons have reached the end of service.[7]


Description[edit]

Besides their missile armament, the Typhoon class features six torpedo tubes; all of which are designed to handle RPK-2 (SS-N-15) missiles or Type 53 torpedoes. A Typhoon-class submarine can stay submerged for periods up to 120 days[1] in normal conditions, and potentially more if deemed necessary (e.g., in the case of a nuclear war). Their primary weapons system is composed of 20 R-39 (NATO: SS-N-20) ballistic missiles (SLBM) with a maximum of 10 MIRV nuclear warheads each. Technically, Typhoons were able to deploy their long-range nuclear missiles while moored at their docks.[8]
Typhoon-class submarines feature multiple pressure hulls, similar to the World War II Japanese I-400-class submarine, that simplify internal design while making the vessel much wider than a normal submarine. In the main body of the sub, two long pressure hulls lie parallel with a third, smaller pressure hull above them (which protrudes just below the sail), and two other pressure hulls for torpedoes and steering gear. This also greatly increases their survivability—even if one pressure hull is breached, the crew members in the other are safe and there is less potential for flooding.

History[edit]



A Typhoon class submarine on the surface in 1985.


Soviet "Typhoon" class ballistic missile submarine, with inset of a football field graphic to convey a sense of the enormous size of the vessel.
The Typhoon class was developed under Project 941 as the Russian Akula class (Акула), meaning shark. It is sometimes confused with other submarines, as Akula is the name NATO uses to designate the Russian Project 971 Shchuka-B (Щука-Б) class attack submarines. The project was developed with the objective to match the SLBM armament of Ohio-class submarines, capable of carrying 192 nuclear warheads, 100 kt each. However, at the time, state-of-the-art Soviet SLBMs were substantially larger and heavier than their American counterparts (the R-39 is more than two times heavier than the Trident I; it remains the heaviest SLBM to have been in service worldwide). The submarine had to be scaled accordingly.[citation needed]
In the early 1990s, there were also intentions to rebuild some of the Typhoon-class submarines to submarine cargo vessels for shipping oil, gas and cargo under polar ice to Russia’s far flung northern territories. The submarines could take up to 10,000 tonnes of cargo on-board and ship it under the polar ice to tankers waiting in the Barents Sea. These ships — after the considerable engineering required to develop technologies to transfer oil from drilling platforms to the submarines, and later, to the waiting tankers — would then deliver their cargo world-wide.[9]
Six Typhoon-class submarines were built. Originally, the submarines were designated by hull numbers only. Names were later assigned to the four vessels retained by the Russian Navy, which were sponsored by either a city or company. The construction order for an additional vessel (hull number TK-210) was canceled and never completed. Only the first of these submarines to be constructed, the Dmitriy Donskoy, is still in active service with the Russian Navy, serving as a test platform for the Bulava (SS-NX-32) missile. The Arkhangelsk (TK-17) and Severstal (TK-20) remain in reserve, not currently active with the Russian fleet. All the R-39 missiles have been retired. The Typhoons have since been replaced by the Borei class since 2010-2011.
In late December 2008, a senior Navy official announced that the two Typhoon-class submarines, the TK-17 and TK-20, that are in reserve would not be rearmed with the new Bulava SLBM missile system. They could however be modified to carry cruise missiles or to lay mines, or could be used in special operations.[10] In late June 2009, the Navy Commander-in-Chief, Admiral Vladimir Vysotskiy told reporters that the two submarines would be reserved for possible future repairs and modernization.[11] In May 2010, the Navy Commander-in-Chief reported that Russia's Typhoon-class submarines would remain in service with the Navy until 2019.[12] In September 2011, the Russian defense ministry decided to write off all Project 941 Akula nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines until 2014. The reasons for decommissioning the Typhoon class vessels are the restrictions imposed on Russia by the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty and successful trials of new Borei-class submarine.[13]
Despite being a replacement for many types of submarines, the Borei class submarines are slightly smaller than the Typhoon class in terms of length (170 m as opposed to 175 m) and crew (107 people as opposed to 160). These changes were in part designed to reduce the cost to build and maintain the submarines. In addition, the United States and Canada provided 80% of funds for scrapping the older Typhoon class submarines, making it much more economical to build a new submarine.[14] However, according to other sources at the Russian defence ministry, no such decision has been made; in that case, the submarines would remain with the Russian Navy.,[15] Submarines TK-17 Arhangelsk and TK-20 Severstal will not be modernized as platforms for cruise missiles, but they will be kept in service with their previous armament, R-39 missiles.
In 2013, the State-Run RIA Novosti news has announced that the Navy will scrap two Typhoons beginning in 2018. They will be the TK-17 and TK-20.[16] As of 2017, the decision about scrapping of TK-17 and TK-20 is still not certain.[17]

Units[edit]

#NameLaid downLaunchedCommissionedFleetStatus
TK-208Dmitriy Donskoy30 June 197627 September 197923 December 1981Northern Fleet20]
TK-20222 April 197823 September 198228 December 1983 
TK-12Simbirsk19 April 198017 December 198326 December 1984 
TK-1323 February 198230 April 198526 December 1985 
TK-17Arkhangelsk9 August 198312 December 198615 December 1987Northern Fleet 
TK-20Severstal27 August 198511 April 198919 December 1989 [1]Northern Fleet 
TK-2101986 

Timeline[edit]

TK-208 Dmitriy Donskoy (Typhoon #1)
  • 10 February 1982: Entered 18th division (Zapadnaya Litsa), NOR.
  • December 1982: Transferred from Severodvinsk to Zapadnaya Litsa.
  • 1983-1984: Tests of D-19 missile complex. Commanders: A.V.Olkhovikov (1980–1984).
  • 3 December 1986: Entered Navy Board of the Winners of the Socialist Competition.
  • 18 January 1987: Entered MoD Board of Glory.
  • 20 September 1989 – 1991: Repairs and refit at Sevmash to Project 941U. 1991 refit cancelled.
  • 1996: Returned to 941U refit.
  • 2002: Named Dmitriy Donskoy.
  • 26 June 2002: End of refit.
  • 30 June 2002: Start of testing.
  • 26 July 2002: Entered sea trials, Re-entered fleet, without missile system.
  • December 2003: Sea trials; refitted to carry a new Bulava missile system. New missile system expected to be operational by 2005.
  • 9 October 2005: Successfully launched SS-NX-30 Bulava SLBM from surface.
  • 21 December 2005: Successfully launched SS-NX-30 Bulava SLBM from submerged position on move.
  • 7 September 2006: Test launch of the Bulava missile failed after several minutes in flight due to the problems in the flight control system. The missile fell into the sea about a minute after the launch. The sub was not affected and was returning to Severodvinsk base submerged. Later reports blamed the engine of the first stage for the failure.
  • 25 October 2006: Test launch of the Bulava-M missile in the White Sea failed some 200 seconds after liftoff due to the apparent failure of the flight control system.
  • 28 August 2008: Underwent successful testing at the Sevmash shipyard in Severodvinsk, Arkhangelsk Oblast. More than 170 men worked with the Dmitriy Donskoy, 100 of them employed at the Sevmash plant and 70 at other companies.
  • As of 2017, the submarine is still in active service.[22]

Flying man - Curt Lewis


Man flies jet pack down the street at Comic-Con 2017
Richard Browning, founder of Gravity Industries, flies around in his eco-suit, that flies just like Marvel's Ironman, at the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con. (Photo by Mark Eades, Orange County Register/SCNG)
No, he's not Marvel's Iron Man, but he flies like him.

Thanks to technology and the aid of six small jet engines, Richard Browning, inventor and founder of Gravity Industries, once again showed off his newest invention, a suit that lets him fly without wings.

"I love new challenges, even when people around you say it can't be done," he said.
Richard Browning shows off his Ironman flying suit at 2017 San Diego Comic-Con
SCNG
Browning flew his suit along a street at the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con, hovering up to 10 feet above the ground, flying forward, backwards, and spinning circles before an appreciative audience and a few cameras.

"I'm a big believer in human potential, so if you marry the right technology, I wondered what might be possible in the realm of human flight," Browning said.
There are two jet engines attached to each of his arms, and a pair on his back - all powered by jet fuel, also carried on a tank on his back.
Richard Browning, founder of Gravity Industries, looks like some kind of spaceman in his suit that allows him to fly like Marvel's Ironman at the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con. (Photo by Mark Eades, Orange County Register/SCNG)
He uses his arms to control direction, and his hands are on the controls of the amount of thrust provided by the engines.

Future USN fighter - Curt Lewis


Speed and range could be key for Navy's next fighter jet

Boeing concept art for a Next Generation Air Dominance fighter jet. (Boeing)

WASHINGTON - The Navy is knee deep in an analysis on how best to replace its Super Hornet and Growler aircraft. Though much work is still left to be done, the resulting platform could look a lot different than both those jets, with a much higher priority on range and speed.

The service kicked off its "Next Generation Air Dominance" analysis of alternatives in January 2016 to study potential replacements for the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and E/A-18G Growler. (Confusingly, the Air Force has used the NGAD term to describe its own analysis of alternatives for an F-22 follow-on aircraft, but the services' efforts are not connected and there are no plans to pursue a joint fighter).

Now, after about a year and a half, the Navy team feels they have a complete understanding of what capabilities the future carrier strike group needs to have and, importantly, what threats it will face, Capt. Richard Brophy, who is working the AoA effort as part of the service's air warfare division, said during a panel at the Office of Naval Research's science and technology expo.

"The tradespace is completely wide open as we look at what is going to replace those airplanes," he said, adding that the "family of systems" that replace the Super Hornet and Growler could include a fighter jet, but perhaps also include shipboard systems or multiple aircraft working together.

Although the study is not slated to wrap up until at least April, Brophy offered his thoughts on some key capabilities for NGAD.

For one, it could be unmanned or optionally manned, as was the hope of former Navy Secretary Ray Mabus.

"It is not lost on us that A.I. [artificial intelligence], unmanned, it's coming and it's out there, and we need to be able to incorporate that into what we're looking at out there," Brophy said.

One key attribute that NGAD will likely incorporate is a longer range - something Brophy says is a significant limitation for the current carrier air wing.

"I tend to think of it not only as range, but as reach. Not only how far my airplane flies, but how far do my weapons go on top of that," he said. "Reach also gets into propulsion, and when we look at propulsion, I'm looking for efficiency. The longer I can fly without having to go get gas, the better."

Another critical capability is a throwback to the F-14 Tomcat-era of flight operations: the need for high speed.

Brophy said the Navy, which has historically been more skeptical of stealth than the Air Force, will likely incorporate some low observable capabilities into its future NGAD capability. But it is still undetermined as to whether it becomes as high of a priority as it was for the F-35 joint strike fighter.

"We certainly need survivability. Stealth is just one piece of the survivability equation," he said. "I kind of look at stealth as sort of like chaff and flares. It's not going to defeat [the enemy] every time, but it will help. Stealth is part of what any future design - if you look at any country, they're going that way. So, yes it would probably be part of it."

Bill Nickerson, a program officer for ONR's division of aerospace sciences, added that the office is investing in stealth as well as other technologies that would improve survivability, such as ultra-lightweight armor and counter-directed energy capabilities.

As the AoA progresses, the Navy will look at multiple options to replace the Super Hornet and Growler. The first option - to do nothing - will likely be quickly ruled out because the service will need capacity as those aircraft begin retiring in the mid 2030s, Brophy said.

The team will also consider whether Navy can meet the threats it encounters in the 2040 timeframe with simply by buying more Super Hornets, Growlers and F-35Cs, or whether it could upgrade versions of those platforms could accomplish those missions.

Finally, the Navy will look a starting a new program that includes some "transformational capabilities." However, Brophy acknowledged that the service will need to keep cost low enough to buy a high volume of air vehicles.

"Numbers matter. We've got to be able to have enough aircraft out there," he said.